神霊との交換 : 南インドのブータ祭祀における慣習的制度、近代法、社会的エイジェンシー Exchange with the Spirits : Customary Law, Modern Law and Social Agency in a South Indian Bhuta Shrine

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本稿は、南インドのブータ祭祀を対象として、植民地期以降の南インドにおける慣習的制度と近代法とのせめぎあいを検討する。その際に本稿では、先行研究によって看過されてきた儀礼における神霊の社会的エイジェンシーに焦点を当てる。ブータ祭祀を対象とする先行研究では、個々の儀礼や口頭伝承の記述と共時的分析が主流であり、植民地期以降の政治的・社会的変化という点から祭祀の変容を追究した研究は稀少である。一方、南インドのヒンドゥー寺院については、植民地政府と近代国家による中央集権化にともなう寺院の制度的変化が人類学における主題のひとつとなってきた。後者の研究では、19世紀以降、官僚制度が台頭するとともに近代的な法整備が進み、王権が衰退する中で寺院の自律性が失われ、寺院が国家と近代法の管理下に組み込まれていく過程が描かれている。本稿で検討するカルナータカ州のブータ祭祀においても、19世紀以降の近代法と国家による統治は祭祀に関わる人々の間に数々の対立と紛争を生み出し、ブータの社は制度的変容を余儀なくされてきた。だが、儀礼の実践における人々と神霊の対面的な相互関係と、憑依と託宣という形で現出する神霊のエイジェンシーに着眼するとき、慣習的制度から近代法へという単線的な変化を必ずしも前提できないことに気がつく。祭祀に関わる人々は、社の管財権や祭主権をめぐる裁判を通して近代法のアリーナに参与しつつ、神霊のエイジェンシーが最重要の意味をもつ儀礼の場に繰り返し立ち戻る。このことを通して、近代法のイディオムによって定められた人々の関係性は、神霊を至高の権威とする神話的な「慣習」のイディオムへと再び変換されるのである。本稿では、ブータ祭祀をめぐる裁判と、儀礼における神霊と人々の交渉の検討を通して、慣習的な宗教祭祀と近代法の関係を考察する。

<p>The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between customary law and modern law in Bhuta rituals in South India, focusing on litigations over shrine management as well as on the mutual communication between the divine spirits and the devotees in the ritual practices. Bhutas are divine spirits widely worshiped in the coastal areas of Karnataka, and the worship of them constitutes part of one of the ancient indigenous rituals in the region. Since the 1970s, foreign and indigenous folklorists and anthropologists have begun to study the ritual in detail. Most of those studies have mainly aimed at recording oral epics and analyzing ritual performances synchronically. Relatively few students of the ritual, however, have inquired deeply into its transformation in the wider social and political contexts. Contrary to the synchronic trend of the studies on Bhuta rituals, anthropologists studying Hindu temples in South India have focused on the institutional changes in the temples caused by bureaucratic centralization under colonial rule. From the early 19c, Bhuta shrines have also been transformed in various ways, and the development of the administrative bureaucracy and judiciary has caused conflicts and disputes among the devotees. However, when we shift our gaze to the mutual communication between the divine spirits and the worshippers involved in the ritual practices, we should realize that we cannot presuppose a transition of the Bhuta rituals from the realm of customary law and traditional institutions to the realm of modern law and state administration. On the one hand, the devotees, patrons and priests at Bhuta shrines participate in the realm of the modern judiciary and administration through their litigations over the management and trusteeship of the shrine. On the other hand, they frequently turn back to the realm of the traditional ritual practices governed by the sovereign agency of the divine spirits, an agency that emerges through possession and oracles. Through the mutual communication of such actors as the patrons, priests, other devotees and Bhutas in the ritual, their interrelationships-regulated by modern law-are converted into those arranged by customary law, or kattu, which is authorized by the Bhutas' divine agency. Based on the above theoretical perspective, this article deals with the Bhuta ritual in the village of Perar in Mangalore Taluk, Karnataka. The village has a Bhuta shrine (daivastaana) in which three Bhutas (namely, Barandi, Arasu and Pilichamundi) and a highly-placed Bhuta called Brahma, are enshrined. Chapter 2 considers the traditional institution ruled by customary law (kattu) in the Bhuta shrine in Perar. The shrine is administered by the guttu, that is, the manor houses of the village. There are 16 guttu in Perar, 12 of which belong to those of the Okkelaklu caste. Priests called mukkaldi from the Okkelaklu caste are in charge of the rituals at the shrine, and they also work as mediums for the Bhutas. On the occasion of a yearly festival (neema) organized by the guttu, impersonators belonging to the Pambada caste are possessed by the Bhutas, and they dance and sing oral epics while wearing magnificent make-up and costumes. Focusing on the Bhuta festival in Perar, Chapter 3 deals with the relations among the main actors involved in the event: the heads of the guttu, priests, Pambada impersonators, and the Bhutas. Through their mutual communication, exchanges, and enchantments in the ritual process, each actor becomes a social agent with power over and responsibility (adikaara) for the other actors, while at the same time receiving power from them. In that process, the sovereign agency of the Bhutas is approved by the actors. Chapter 4 investigates the interrelation between modern and customary law in the Bhuta shrine in Perar. First, I deal with a court case from the early 1930s dealing with the trusteeship of the shrine.</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

収録刊行物

  • 文化人類学

    文化人類学 75(1), 1-26, 2010

    日本文化人類学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110007641989
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11958949
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-0648
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    10766327
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-240
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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