宮崎県高千穂町における肉用牛産地の成長と持続的発展への課題 : 2000年代初頭の和牛価格高騰期に注目して  [in Japanese] The Growth of Cattle Farming Areas and the Problem of Sustainable Development in Takachiho Town, Miyazaki Prefecture : Focus on the Period of Increase in Wagyu Beef Price in early 2000s  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿では,輸入農産物をめぐる安全性や産地偽装などの問題を背景とした国産需要の高まりが,国内産地の回復や活性化に結びついているのかという問題意識の下で,アメリカ合衆国でのBSE問題の発生により輸入量が急減し価格高騰を経験した牛肉に注目し,近年の肉用牛産地の成長実態と持続的発展への課題について検討した。その結果,事例とした宮崎県高千穂町では,以下のことが明らかになった。まず,高千穂町では長らく減少傾向にあった肉用牛飼養頭数が,1990年代後半より増加に転じたが,この要因として,自治体と農協による増頭運動が1998年から始められ,専業農家の規模拡大と高齢農家の離農の引き留めが図られたことや,2002年以降の和牛相場の上昇が農家の規模拡大意欲を持続させたことが明らかになった。次に,増頭核心地域における農家調査からは,(1)各農家の飼養規模は,後継者のいる専業層では20頭以上,壮年層のいる第1種兼業農家では10頭前後,高齢者のみの農家では4頭以下と,概して労働力基盤によって規定されていること,(2)大半の農家で兼業経験があり,特に建設業への従事が多いこと,(3)大規模層ほど借地も含めた経営耕地が大きく飼料生産が盛んで,中規模層では椎茸や野菜などとの複合経営が盛んなこと,(4)増頭の中心になったのは後継者のいる専業農家だったが,兼業農家でも壮年層のいる農家を中心に小規模な増頭がみられたこと,(5)2008年後半からの子牛相場の下落にもかかわらず10頭前後の農家層では増頭意欲が強いこと,の5点が明らかになった。さらに,今後の持続的発展への障害として,子牛相場の下落・兼業機会の減少・規模拡大への資金不足などが明らかになったが,これを緩和するために農協は,子牛相場の下支えと低コスト経営の促進を目的に,肥育センターの拡充と大規模放牧場の造成に着手した。今後は増頭意欲のある中規模農家の育成が鍵となってくるが,これには粗飼料の確保に向けた農地流動化の一層の推進と行政による畜舎増築への資金援助が期待される。

There are questions being raised over the safety of imported farm produce and concealment of its provenance, and there is heightened demand for domestically produced food. With public consciousness connecting these issues with the recovery and rejuvenation of production areas within Japan, the plunge in imports from the US and increase in beef price have been a focus of attention. Against this background, the reality of the growth in recent years of cattle farming areas and the problem of sustainable development was investigated. Below are the results of the investigation, using the town of Takachiho, in Miyazaki prefecture as a case study. Firstly, Takachiho had a long-term decline in the number of cattle, but this turned around in the second half of the 1990s and the number started to increase. The reason was due to concerted action of the neighborhood municipality and local agricultural cooperative started in 1998, aimed at increasing the number of cattle by expanding the scale of full-time farmer's operations and by getting older farmers to delay retirement from farming, and it was also found that the increase in Japanese beef prices since 2002 did generate interest in scale expansions of farms. Secondly, based on analysis of the management of farms in areas that experienced marked increases in the number of cattle, the following five points became clear. 1. The rearing scale of a professional farmer's operation where there was a successor to take over from them was over 20 head of cattle, and it was about 10 head on farms with middleaged semi-professional farmers. Only in farms run by elderly farmers were there four or fewer head of cattle. Thus, in general, the scale of a farm was determined by the working ability of the operator. 2. The majority of farmers had experience of doing a second job, with particularly many involved in the forestry and construction industries. 3. While larger scale farms have more crop land, including leased land, and produce animal fodder, mid-sized farms have a combination of businesses, producing shitake mushrooms or vegetables. 4. The focus of the activities to increase the numbers of cattle were the full-time farmers who had successors for their operation. However, while there were also cases of small-scale part-time farmers also increasing the number of cattle raised, saying their motivation was that "it contributes to activities", a sense of community also contributed to the increase in cattle numbers. 5. Despite the fact that in the second half of 2008 the price of Japanese beef fell, farmers with about 10 head of cattle are currently strongly interested in increasing their herd. Further, obstacles to continuous development were found to include the decline in Japanese beef market prices, reduced part-time work opportunities, and a lack of funds for expansion of management. In order to ameliorate these problems, the agricultural cooperative started work on expansion of a feedlot and started on the creation of a common pasture, in order to support the market price for Japanese beef and promote low cost operation. Nurturing mid-scale farmers will be the key going forwards, and, in order to implement this policy, financial assistance for expanding livestock barns is anticipated.

Journal

  • GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES

    GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES 65(2), 82-103, 2010

    THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES

References:  27

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110007642301
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00147775
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    ART
  • ISSN
    0286-4886
  • NDL Article ID
    10776511
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-5
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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