都市に生育する巨木の生理状態とフェノロジー特性  [in Japanese] Physiological status and phenology of big-sized trees in the urban area  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

高齢大型となった巨樹・老木が都市域でどのような生理的・外観的特性を示すかを明らかにする目的で,東京都区部に生育するイチョウ,ケヤキ,クスノキ,ユリノキおよびスダジイの胸高周囲長3 m以上の巨木と1 m以下の中径木を供試木として,水分生理状態,葉の養分濃度,クロロフィル量,クロロフィル蛍光,樹幹表面温度,フェノロジーの計測観察を行った.どの樹種でも,巨木の方が中径木より水分生理状態が悪く,カリウム,マグネシウム濃度が低く,クロロフィル量が少なかった.SPAD値は,スダジイを除く4樹種で巨木の方が中径木より低かった.クロロフィル蛍光には,巨木と中径木で差は認められなかった.巨木と中径木の樹幹表面温度の日変動を比べたところ,巨木の樹幹表面温度が高い傾向が認められた.また,どの樹種でも巨木の黄葉,黄葉終了,落葉が早く,黄葉-落葉期間が長いという傾向が認められた.開芽・展葉の傾向は樹種により異なっていた.巨木は中径木とは明らかに異なる生理状態やフェノロジーを示すといえる.

To study the characteristics of big-sized trees, physiological status such as water relations, foliar nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, stem surface temperature and phenology of big-sized trees (girth at breast height 3m over) and middle-sized trees (girth at breast height 1m under) were measured. Observed trees were <i>Ginkgo biloba</i>, <i>Zelkova serrata</i>, <i>Cinnamomum camphora</i>, <i>Liriodendron tulipifera</i> and <i>Castanopsis sieboldii</i>. In all the samples of big-sized trees, the water relations, foliar nutrient concentrations and chlorophyll contents were significantly lower than those of middle-sized trees. SPAD values of big-sized trees were also lower than those of middle-sized trees except for <i>C. sieboldii</i>. The quantum yields of photosystem II calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence of big-sized trees did not differ significantly from those of middle-sized trees. Stem surface temperature of big-sized trees was generally higher than that of middle-sized trees. The time of bud-break and leaf-unfolding varied among species. The earliest leaf coloring, the earliest defoliation, the longest coloring-defoliation period were all observed in big-sized trees. The characteristics of big-sized trees clearly appears in water and nutrient status and phenology.

Journal

  • Tree and Forest Health

    Tree and Forest Health 5(1), 1-11, 2001

    Tree Health Research Society, Japan

References:  25

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110007861086
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11493506
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    1344-0268
  • NDL Article ID
    5912681
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZR3(科学技術--生物学--植物)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z74-B105
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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