気候変動が首都圏の都市ヒートアイランドに及ぼす影響 : 冬季を対象として  [in Japanese] Effect of global climate change on urban heat island intensity of Tokyo metropolitan area : winter season case  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

Abstract

過去100年間における全球平均の地上気温上昇は0.66℃である一方,東京の地上気温上昇は約3℃である.この違いの原因は,この間に顕著になった都市ヒートアイランドによる影響が大きい.都市ヒートアイランドによる地上気温の上昇は,冬季に最大となる.本研究では,都市キャノピーモデルを含む高解像度領域気候モデルWRFを用いて過去気候の再現実験を実施し,さらに擬似温暖化手法を用いて,SRES A2における2070年代を想定した将来気候実験を行った.これらから全球規模の気候変動が冬の東京都市圏における都市ヒートアイランド強度(Urban Heat Island Intensity;UHII)に与える影響を評価した.その結果,気候変動によって,夜間のUHIIは約20%以上強まることが示唆された.During the recent 100 years, mean surface air temperature (SAT) increased about 3℃ in Tokyo, while the world mean SAT increased only 0.66℃. The major reason of the difference of the warming is the effect of urban heat island (UHI), whose intensity also increased during the period and often largest during winter. This study investigates the change in UHI intensity (UHII) of Tokyo metropolitan area by the effects of global climate change. Present climate simulation is conducted using a high-resolution numerical climate model (WRF) including an urban canopy sub-model. Future climate run is also conducted using Pseudo-Global-Warming method assuming the boundary conditions in 2070s estimated by a GCM under the SRES A2 scenario. The simulation results indicated that UHII would be enhanced more than 20% during night, due to the global climate change. SAT in the urban area is more slowly increase during daytime due to the larger heat capacity than the rural area. Heat release from the buildings in urban area is larger than that in rural area at night, when the dispersion of the released heat tends to be restricted in the lower atmosphere because of weak turbulence. These processes are sensitive on cloud fraction and the atmospheric stability in the lower atmosphere.

Journal

  • Nagare

    Nagare 29(5), 353-361, 2010-10-25

    日本流体力学会

References:  27

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110007880607
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00175191
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    02863154
  • NDL Article ID
    10905806
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZM17(科学技術--科学技術一般--力学・応用力学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z14-911
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS 
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