空気とヒト : 生理的立場から  [in Japanese] Air and Human Beings : from the Physiological Viewpoint  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

日本人が普通に生活をしている場合1日の呼吸量は約15m^3であり,生涯では41万m^3もの空気を吸入する。空気は窒素,酸素,炭酸ガスの他に微量のガスから成り立つが,生命を維持するのに必要な酸素の他に空気中には多くの有害な化学物質や粒子状物質が混在しそれらを同時に吸入していることになる。空気とヒトとの関係を考える上で呼吸の仕組みやガス交換の仕組みを理解することが重要である。狭義の呼吸は生体と外界とのガス交換である外呼吸のことを言う。気道系は,鼻,口から始まり気管に至る。気管は左右2つの気管支に分枝し,さらに細い気管支を経て肺胞につながる。肺胞は一層の呼吸上皮細胞から成り,内面の総面積は約100m^2に達する。肺胞は肺毛細血管に取り巻かれており,CO_2の肺胞内への拡散とO_2の血液への取り込みが可能となる。呼吸機能検査で指標となる各種用語の意味,空気中の酸素分圧の意義を解説し,人為的な有害なガス状物質,粒子状物質の生体内挙動を解説した。

We usually need about fifteen cubic meters of air per day, and inspire 410 thousand cubic meters of air in our lifetime. Ambient air consists of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and other trace gases, and also contains many kinde of manmade hazardous chemicals and particulate matter. It is important to recognize the mechanism of respiration and gas exchange in order to know the relationships between human beings and air. Respiration in a narrow sense means external respiration, that is gas exchange between air and the human body. The airway system starts from the nose and mouth to the trachea. It is divided into two bronchi and reaches the alveoli. They are formed of single respiratory epitherial cells, and their total surface area is about 100 square meters. Alveoli are surrounded, by many capifiary vessels, through which carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged. The meanings of several terms of pulmonary functions and oxygen partial pressure in the air are reported, and the transportation and fate in the human body of hazardous chemicals and particulate matter are described.

Journal

  • Journal of human and living environment

    Journal of human and living environment 7(1), 18-24, 1999

    Japanese Society of Human-Environment System

References:  3

  • <no title>

    福原武彦訳

    生理学アトラス, 1999

    Cited by (1)

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    岩瀬善彦編集

    やさしい生理学, 1997

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    内山厳雄編集

    吸入毒性, 1992

    Cited by (1)

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008447936
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11443337
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    REV
  • ISSN
    1340-7694
  • NDL Article ID
    5353357
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE5(社会・労働--社会問題・社会保障)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B695
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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