スターシステムと文化の「高級」性の根拠:歌舞伎の社会的地位を事例として  [in Japanese] The "Star System" and Ground's for a Highbrow Image:Focusing on the Social Status of Kabuki  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

スターシステムという性質は,通俗的,非芸術的な要素として認知されることが多い.今日,一般に高級文化としての社会的位置を確立している歌舞伎であるが,一方でスターシステム的性質を内包しているとしばしば表象される.本稿は,その「通俗」性と高級文化としての威信が歌舞伎においていかに共存しうるのかを明らかにする.これは,大衆文化やポピュラー文化の側から問い直しが多く行われている,文化の高級性/低級性というテーマに関し,すでに高級と認知されている文化の側から,その位置づけが何に根拠づけられているのかを問い直す試みともなる.<br>かつては低俗として糾弾された歌舞伎のスターシステムは,1980年代にはほとんど批判を受けなくなる.その風潮と前後して歌舞伎の高級文化としてのイメージは強固なものとなるが,そのイメージ形成を主導したのは歌舞伎とは馴染みの薄い若年層の眼差しであった.そうした層によって歌舞伎は,あらかじめ高尚な地位にある伝統芸能として認知され,その演劇的性質はあらためて価値判断を受けることがない.このとき歌舞伎の「高尚」性はその論拠が問われぬまま,きわめてイマジナリーな性質のものとしてある.今日,その内容にスターシステム的性質が依然言及されながらも,それは歌舞伎が高級文化であるという「ブランド」が所与である前提のうえでしか看取されないため,スターシステムという語が一般に帯びる低級性に直結されることはない.

The term "star system" frequently connotes vulgarity and a sense of the nonartistic. Although kabuki is generally considered as a form of highbrow culture in contemporary Japan, it involves the star system. This paper examines how the highbrow image of kabuki is maintained in spite of negative associations of the "star system. "Many studies have examined the classification of highbrow/lowbrow culture from the viewpoints of the cultures that have been considered lowbrow or popular. Thus, another function of this paper is to reexamine this classification from the perspective of highbrow culture.<br>The star system of kabuki had been criticized as a non-artistic element since the Meiji era. This tendency almost disappeared in the 1980s. At the same time, the image of kabuki as a highbrow culture gradually became established.<br>This highbrow image of kabuki is mainly constructed by the people who usually do not come in contact with kabuki. They perceive kabuki as an absolute highbrow culture with a long-established traditional image, and they do not investigate the dramatic properties of kabuki. It means that they do not examine why kabuki is considered highbrow; therefore, the highbrow image of kabuki, which people firmly believe, is actually constructed on imaginary and uncertain grounds shaped by laypersons.<br>In this condition, the "star system" that kabuki involves is not labeled as lowbrow, even though the star system itself is still generally considered vulgar. Because people affirm the dignity of kabuki as a highbrow culture, without examining the grounds for the highbrow image, they believe that kabuki is a highbrow culture regardless of its dramatic properties. The lowbrow and vulgar image of the "star system" becomes obscured by the highbrow image of kabuki, which is not adequately justified.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 61(4), 489-506, 2011

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008585172
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    11172451
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE1(社会・労働--社会科学・社会思想・社会学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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