「寒いけれども～」(『方言文法全国地図』)の解釈 : 逆接確定表現の言語地理学的考察 A Study of Adversative Variants of Keredomo : Their Distribution and History
On map no. 38 in the Grammar Atlas of Japanese Dialects, the adversative expressions (1) domo and batten are located on the outer side of eastern and western Japan, (2) ga on the inner side and (3) keredo (mo) in the central area of Japan. Based on historical as well as geo-linguistic surveys, it is supposed that these forms developed in the central area of Japan (Kinki area) first, and then expanded to other areas, giving rise to the distribution today. It is necessary to examine why these word forms show these geographical distributions. The (1) area largely overlaps that of expressions formed using ba, and the forms are similar to conditional expressions in that they are all added as suffixes to the izenkei conjugational form. Tightly connected with each other, these expressions occupy, therefore, the same geographical territory. But as the usage of the izenkei changed around the Kinsei period, the (1) forms resisted change and came to be added as suffixes to the "sentence-final form" (shushikei). The inner region of area (2) is scattered into three parts: the Chugoku region, the Tokai region, and around the edge of the Kanto region. Area (3) expanded over area (2) and spread further away. This suggests that during the period that area (2) forms were reaching the area of the (1) forms, the (3) form started to spread from the center of Japan. At the time Japan had two cultural centers one in Kinki, and one in Edo from which the new (3) form started to spread. As a result, the (2) form remained at the two corners of both western and eastern Japan. These processes could imply that linguistic distribution first started from the Kinki area and spread out from there to other regions of Japan, but since the Kinsei period, Edo rose as a second cultural center, starting the spread of new forms and leading to the current day distribution.
日本語の研究 6(4), 110-124, 2010