アメリカ合衆国公立学校における障害者教育の成立・展開とその意義 : 史資料と方法の新段階 Education of Children With Disabilities in Public Schools in the United States : Historical Review of Its Establishment, Development, and Significance

この論文にアクセスする

この論文をさがす

著者

    • 岡 典子 OKA Noriko
    • 筑波大学大学院人間総合科学研究科 Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba

抄録

本稿ではまず、アメリカ合衆国公立学校における障害児教育の成立と展開について、今日、大多数の障害児が在籍する公立学校教育の出発点となった通学制特殊学級を中心に、主として1990年代以降に刊行された学術書・研究論文を対象として研究動向を論じた。特殊学級をめぐる歴史的状況はきわめて複雑であり、その理念や目的、教育の実態、成果と限界については、障害・学級種、時期、さらには都市や地域によっても一様ではなかった。しかし、その複雑性こそがまさに特殊学級の本質であり、特殊学級の実相を総合的かつ相対的に把握するためには、これらの諸条件を構造化し、有機的にクロスさせた大規模な縦断的・横断的検討が不可欠となる。そこで次に、こうした検討を可能にする手段のひとつとして、従来の研究ではみられなかった新たな史資料の活用・分析の手法を具体的に提案した。

One purpose of the present paper is to clarify the history of education for children with disabilities in public schools in the United States, focusing especially on the establishment and development of special day classes and special schools, because that marked a starting point for today's education for children with disabilities in public schools. The paper discusses trends of research on this topic conducted since 1990. Special classes are currently regarded by radical inclusionists as typical of special education, which they contend is a root cause of the discrimination against and segregation of children with disabilities. However, to the contrary, special classes were intended originally to provide education that was appropriate for children with disabilities, not to exclude them from regular classes nor to segregate them apart from the other children. It is important to find out what results have been achieved by special classes, and whether they have failed to achieve the desired results, so that modern inclusive education does not repeat past mistakes. Much traditional historical research on special classes, except for general histories of education, has focused on the period immediately after their establishment. However, the purposes and realities of the original special classes are not well known, except for those in large cities such as Boston, New York, and Chicago. However, the essence, purposes, realities, results, and problems of special classes varied significantly, depending on the types of disability and classes involved, the location, and the historical period. A second purpose of the present paper, therefore, is to propose a new research method combining horizontal and vertical perspectives.

収録刊行物

  • 特殊教育学研究

    特殊教育学研究 48(2), 147-155, 2010

    一般社団法人 日本特殊教育学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110008661603
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00172513
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3374
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    10850215
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZF9(教育--各科教育)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z7-314
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
ページトップへ