環境問題と知のガバナンス――経験の無力化と暗黙知の回復――  [in Japanese] Environmental Problems and the Governance of Knowledge: Undermining of Experience and the Recovery of Tacit Knowledge  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>環境ガバナンスの実践に伴い人間社会が統治・編成されていく過程には見過ごしてはならない重要な側面がある。それは,環境ガバナンスの推進が特定の知のあり方を特権化したり,逆に無力化する側面である。今日の環境ガバナンスに先行した中央政府による自然資源管理は,為政者による操作を容易ならしめるような知の生成と強化を伴った。文脈を捨象することで成り立つ形式知は,統治を支える知として特権化され,人間がその場に応じて文脈を読み取る暗黙知の地位は低下を強いられてきた。現在の民主国家では,説明責任や透明性への圧力から,公共政策を特定個人の利益追求のためにあからさまに利用することは難しくなった一方で,政策選択を正当化する基準として「効率」や「技術的優位性」が幅を利かすようになった。それがかつての「統治」過程と同じように,人間の経験に基づく知のあり方を隅に追いやる効果をもつことはほとんど看過されている。環境社会学の重要任務の1つは,知の階級性がもたらす効果を検証し,近代科学が軽視してきた暗黙知や判断の役割を回復することにある。</p>

<p>The process of environmental governance involves the governance of society and the way in which people participate in society. However, since the physical elements of the environment such as forests and water are often the center of discussion, the ways in which environmental governance implicitly orders society, seldom become the subject of investigation. The history of governance demonstrates that the process of state simplification has brought with it certain forms of knowledge that have, in turn, brought the phenomenon at the center of the field of vision into far sharper focus and hence, far more susceptible to careful measurement, calculation, and manipulation. Modern science and centralized political control mutually strengthen each other while resulting in the undermining of the experiential and tacit knowledge specific to diverse localities. This tendency applies very much to the field of natural resources and the environment of the past and present.</p><p>What has been omitted from the process is what Aristotle called "<i>phronesis</i> (practical wisdom)", an important element of tacit knowledge that is distinguishable from the other two dominant classes of knowledge, i.e., science and art (craft). Tacit knowledge operates, not in the realm of science, but in the realm of judgment. Despite the apparent recession of top down simplification and more emphasis on decentralization and participation, the doctrines of "efficiency" and "technological imperative" are still dominant in environmental projects and equally forceful in undermining knowledge based on human experience and distributional struggle.</p><p>Environmental problems often require locally specific and timely interventions that demand knowledge of the particular. This is in stark contrast to the tradition of science that places emphasis on the universal. The important task of environmental sociology is to recover the realm of tacit knowledge, not only by acknowledging its existence and explaining its functions, but also by paying attention to the kind of dogma that is uncritically adopted and consequently undermines the realm of judgment.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Environmental Sociology

    Journal of Environmental Sociology 15(0), 39-53, 2009

    Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008671135
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10498448
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • NDL Article ID
    10517153
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE5(社会・労働--社会問題・社会保障)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B659
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE  NDL-Digital 
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