アカデミック・ハラスメントの形成過程 The Process of the Construction of Academic Harassment
本研究は，高等教育・研究者養成における教員─学生関係の社会学研究として，アカデミック・ハラスメントの形成過程を明らかにする。そのため，医療系の女性大学院生を事例に，学生が「被害」を認識する契機となるエピソードに着目し，被害の背景にある教員─学生間の信頼関係の変遷を，対話的構築主義アプローチを用いたライフストーリーとして再構成する事例研究を行う。<BR> 考察の結果，学生が「被害」と認識した出来事は，それ単独として存在するのではなく，多忙化した教員の研究・教育関与の低下，研究室間の不文律システム，教員同士の確執等，日常に埋め込まれた諸文脈の累積により学生の教員への信頼が失われ，その結果初めて学生にとって不快で不当な「ハラスメント被害」が構築されるという過程が明らかになった。<BR> また，対話的構築主義アプローチをとったことにより，上記のハラスメント形成過程は，従来のアカデミック・フェミニズムの中でのモデル・ストーリーとなってきた「ジェンダー要因を中核とするハラスメント体験」の語りに対してずれを含む新たな対抗言説として導出された。<BR> 研究室の教員─学生関係で生じる困難を，単に学生相談の臨床心理からのみ論じるのではなく，背景にあるジェンダー関与的文脈と非関与的文脈の総体について社会学的に検討し，政策・教育機能分析と指導の実践レベルの研究とを接続する必要があると考える。
This paper aims to provide a sociological analysis of a mentor-student relationship in a graduate school through the investigation of the process by which academic harassment is constructed. I will examine the case of a female graduate student in the health science field with an emphasis on how she has come to recognize her mentorʼs behavior as "academic harassment."<BR><BR>The research was conducted through half-structured interviews by the interactive-construction approach. By reconstructing the data as a life story, the following two points are revealed.<BR><BR>The first point is the cumulative process of the construction of academic harassment.<BR><BR>The student in this case has singled out some of her mentorʼs acts as harassment. Yet, it was not so much that each act emerged as harassment; rather, the acts were construed as harassment when put into the context of localized factors. Included are such factors as the mentorʼs negligent research in the laboratory, his enthusiasm in playing "department politics" at the cost of education, and his inadequate mentoring of other students. These factors have changed the studentʼs understanding of her own position as a student. She at first recognized herself as a junior research partner who could learn from her mentor, but later she saw herself as a powerless helper. As a result, she has reached the conclusion that she experienced academic exploitation in her time spent under the mentor.<BR><BR>The account above primarily represents the subjective world of the informant, but it also contains various clues for further research exploring the structural background: an unwritten system in a health science field where research data for a medical student who only wants clinical training to get his or her diploma are outsourced to a "ghost researcher" from a basic research unit; an opaque recruiting system that enables a professor to give his students preferential treatment; networks among clinical specialists and researchers. Thus, academic harassment is not merely an issue of clinical psychology for troubled students, as is presently argued, but reflects problems in the structural background.<BR><BR>Secondly, the interactive-construction approach has led me to change my attitude and to reconstruct the studentʼs experience as something other than "an issue of gender." This is an unusual narrative for an academic woman because existing stories mainly focus on the gendered difficulties in womenʼs academic lives. Further research is necessary to examine the divergence. However, this study suggests a possible new counter-narrative to existing models. In these models, the colorfulness of the data in qualitative research tends to be abstracted by theoretical frames, some of which are influenced by so-called post-structural feminism. These frames often reduce all exploitive experiences in academic life to the issue of gender.<BR><BR>Based on the above examination, I argue that a sociological examination of the difficulties in mentor-student relationships will further enrich the existing studies on graduate school education in Japan, which mainly focus on macro-meso level analysis. My examination will also contribute to the advancement of higher education studies in view of contemporary feminist challenges.
教育社会学研究 88(0), 163-184, 2011