幕府による硝石の統制 : 軍制改革と座・会所の設立  [in Japanese] The Study on Control of Saltpeter by the Tokugawa Shogunate : The Relation between Military Organization Reform and Establishment of Guild  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

Abstract

At the end of the Edo period, the Tokugawa Shogunate introduced Western military system in the military organization reform, and the reform gave rise to the situation that required a lot of gunpowder. Gunpowder was composed of 60-80% saltpeter, 8-25% sulfur and 10-20% charcoal. Saltpeter made up most of the materials of gunpowder, but Japan had no natural reserves of saltpeter. For acquisition of saltpeter, the Japanese relied on the import from China or artificial production. So on introducing Western military system, how to get saltpeter was regarded as important. Commondore Matthew Calbraith Perry's fleet that came to Japan in 1853 brought about the jump in saltpeter prices. The guild was responsible for control of the distribution channel of materials of gunpowder, especially saltpeter, and for produce of gunpowder under the Shogunate control, which led to the establishment of the guild of gunpowder (Awasegusuri-Za) in 1854. However, the production of gunpowder under the Shogunate control was not realized until the establishment of Meguro powder plant and the area of saltpeter production for the Shogunate (Shoseki-Gojiseijyo) in 1862-1863. The control of the distribution channel of materials of gunpowder, limited to saltpeter, was realized by establishment of the guild of saltpeter (Shoseki-Kaisyo) in 1863. The control of saltpeter by the Shogunate began with the plan of gunpowder guild in 1854, it is to say that arrival of Perry's fleet in Japan had a great impact on the production of gunpowder under the Shogunate.

Journal

  • Journal of history of science, Japan [Series 2]

    Journal of history of science, Japan [Series 2] 50(258), 77-85, 2011-06-24

    The History of Science Society of Japan

References:  71

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008673791
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10104688
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    ART
  • ISSN
    00227692
  • NDL Article ID
    11166318
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZM2(科学技術--科学技術一般--大学・研究所・学会紀要)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z14-82
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  NII-ELS 
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