ペットの家族化と葬送文化の変容  [in Japanese] The Treatment of Pets as Family Members and Changes in Funeral Culture  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

今日、日本の葬送文化はさまざまな変容を遂げている。本論では、特に今日のペット供養を取り上げ、伝統的に行われてきた畜生供養とどのように異なるのかを明らかにする。馬頭観音を本尊とした馬供養のように、ペット供養文化が開花する以前にも、日本では動物に対する供養は行われてきた。伝統的な六道輪廻観において動物は、地獄界・餓鬼界の次に低い畜生界に属していると考えられてきた。畜生供養は、中国撰述の『梵網経』を典拠としているが、それは牛馬猪羊など一切の動物の発菩提心を説いているため、本来は動物の成仏をめざすものである。それに対して、ペットが家族化した現在、多くの場合、飼い主は、個々のペットの他界観に関して小さな物語創作を行い、自らの死後、ペットとの再会を願っている。しかし、これはペットに限った現象ではなく、人間に対する他界観に関しても、死者を祀る側の願望にしたがって、小さな物語創作が行われてきているのが垣間見える。

Funeral rites have undergone various changes in Japan recently. In this paper, I focus on memorial services for pets, which are now in vogue, and throw light on the difference between them and traditional services for animals. In Japan memorial services for animals started long before services for pets came into fashion. For instance, services for horses were conducted with the Horse-Headed Guanyin/Kan'non (Hayagriva) as the main object of worship. In the Buddhist concept of transmigration in the six domains of the desire realm, animals belong to the "animal realm," which is the third lowest world, with the lowest and the second lowest world being the realms of hell and the preta, respectively. The basis for such memorial services for animals is the Fanwan Jing (Bonmokyo) compiled in China, which presents the possibility of awakening the heart to seek enlightenment (bodhicitta) by cows, horses, wild boars, sheep, and all other animals. Originally memorial services were conducted to help animals enter nirvana. In Japan today pets are often treated as if they were family members, and pet owners create stories concerning their pets entering the next world, and hope to meet their pets again in the next life. This phenomenon is not limited to pets, but has also extended to include people, so that stories are created in accordance with the wishes of those who memorialize the dead.

Journal

  • Journal of religious studies

    Journal of religious studies 85(1), 151-173, 2011

    Japanese Association for Religious Studies

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008686221
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00406454
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3293
  • NDL Article ID
    11153091
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZH6(哲学・宗教--宗教)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z9-184
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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