「心身一如」の由来を道元・栄西それぞれの出典と原典から探る  [in Japanese] A Study on the Origin of "Shinshin-ichinyo" with Reference to the Source Texts of Dogen and Eisai  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 仲 紘嗣 Naka Hiroji
    • 社会福祉法人協立いつくしみの会特別養護老人施設かりぷ・あつべつ医務室 The Special Nursing Home for the Aged:Karipu-Atsubetsu, Medical Room

Abstract

「心身(シンシン)一如」は心身医学で重要な概念であるが,この言葉の由来は従来から「道元の言葉"身心(シンジン)一如"とされ,」とあいまいである.近年は栄西の言葉「心身(シンジン)一如」とする説もある.栄西(1141〜1215年)は1198年に『興禅護国論』を執筆しているが,その原本は紛失して現存していない.現在,われわれが一般に読むことができるのは1778年以降の校訂本である.その校訂本では,「心身一如」を含む前後の句を『禅苑清規』(1103年,中国の文献:禅僧の生活規範が記してある)から引用して示している.しかし,『禅苑清規』には「心身一如」ではなくて「身心一如」と記載されている.したがって,栄西の執筆時の言葉は「身心一如」であったと推測される.一方,道元(1200〜1253年)の言葉「身心一如」の出典は『正法眼蔵』「辧道話」(1231年)である.道元の言葉を今日用いている「心身一如」の由来とするには身と心の語順の逆転が問題となるが,そのことに関しては本文で示した理由により納得できるものであった.以上,これらの言葉の出典や原典の検討から,今日用いている「心身一如」の由来は道元の言葉「身心一如」であって,また,「身心一如」は推測ながら栄西の執筆時の言葉でもあったであろう.道元・栄西それぞれの言葉の意味するところは本文で示した.歴史的には「身心一如」は身を重視し「心身(シンシン)一如」は心を重んじてきた.「心身一如」の本来の意味は身を重視した「身心一如」にあり,この概念は心身医学分野ですでに生かされているが,いっそうこの点を念頭に置いて研究・診療にあたるべきであろう.

Background: While Western medicine has been based on the religious concept of the distinction between body and soul, Japanese psychosomatic medicine, on the other hand, is based on the concept of mind-body unity. The term shinshin-ichinyo (心身一如mind-body unity) has been thought to have its origin in the term shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如body-mind unity) of Dogen. However, Yuasa et al. have recently claimed that its origin is the term shinjin-ichinyo (心身一如mind-body unity) of Eisai. Method: The author consulted their original source texts and studied the meaning of both shinshin-ichinyo (心身一如) and shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如). Results: Eisai (1141-1212) had studied Buddhism in China, where he copied the Zen-on Shingi (1103), which he subsequently carried back with him to Japan. In 1198 he wrote his book the Kozengokokuron. Though the original manuscript is now lost, the text of Kozengokokuron was later published in 1666 and then disseminated after 1778. Here the expression does appear as shinjin-ichinyo (心身一如), but only in a passage on zazen quoted from the Zenon Shingi, where the phrase appeared as shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如) instead. It is thus likely that the phrase was shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如) in the original Kozengokokuron as well, and that this was mistakenly reversed to shinjin-ichinyo (心身一如) at some point between 1198 and 1666 in the course of the manuscript being copied and recopied. From the above, the author concludes that Eisai's term shinjin-ichinyo (心身一如) is not the correct origin of the term shinshin-ichinyo (心身一如). Dogen (1200-1215) used the expression shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如) in his book Shobogenzo Bendowa, written in 1231. The problem of how the first two characters 身 and 心 could have been reversed to produce the term shinshin-ichinyo (心身一如) is satisfactorily explained by the author. Historically, the expression shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如) has emphasized the first character 身, meaning body, while shinshin-ichinyo (心身一如) has emphasized the first character 心, meaning mind. Conclusion: The term shinshin-ichinyo (心身一如) has its origin in the term shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如) that was written by Dogen and probably by Eisai as well. The original meaning is shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如), with the emphasis on the first character 身, meaning body. The concept of shinjin-ichinyo (身心一如) lives on in psychosomatic medicine in Japan.

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine

    Japanese Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine 51(8), 737-747, 2011

    Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine

References:  26

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008686797
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00121636
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    REV
  • ISSN
    0385-0307
  • NDL Article ID
    11164370
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZS31(科学技術--医学--精神神経科学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-26
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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