世界遺産の保全と住民生活――「白川郷」を事例として――  [in Japanese] Conservation of World Heritage and Residents' Lifestyles: A Case Study of <i>Shirakawago</i>  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>世界遺産への登録を地域おこしの切札のように考えている地域は少なくない。実際,現在日本各地で行われている世界遺産登録運動は,枚挙に暇がないほどである。しかし,世界遺産登録は,当該地域に望ましいことばかりをもたらすわけではない。本稿で事例として取り上げる「白川郷」では,近年特に,この文化遺産の骨子である景観に「変化」が生じていることが問題として指摘されている。</p><p>この場合の変化は,観光客急増に起因した「悪化」という意味で使われることが多い。しかし,「白川郷」で起きている変化は,〈景観の「悪化」〉だけではない。修景行為に伴う〈景観の「改善」〉もまた「白川郷」で起きている変化だといえるからである。つまり,「白川郷」では,〈景観の「悪化」〉と〈景観の「改善」〉の両方に変化が生じているといえる。しかしながら,実は,個々の変化を「悪化」と見るか「改善」と見るかは,評者によって違うのである。そこで必然的に,<u>誰が</u>それを判断するのか,ということが問題になってくる。</p><p>また,〈景観の「悪化」〉であろうと〈景観の「改善」〉であろうと,それらの変化が「白川郷」に暮らす人々の生活に直結しているということも重要である。にもかかわらず,従来景観の変化が取り沙汰される場合,その点が軽視されがちであった。</p><p>そこで本稿では,住民と「専門家」という二つの行為主体に関する考察を軸に,生活者である住民の視点に留意しつつ,現在における景観保全の在り方の問題点を明らかにした。その際,これまでほとんど指摘されてこなかった,世界遺産登録後の〈景観の「改善」〉のための規制強化に着目し,検討を加えた。</p>

<p>Recently, several local communities have made attempts to be inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List. It seems that they consider inscription on the list as a decisive success in community promotion. However, the consequences of inscription on the World Heritage List are not always beneficial. I illustrate this point by a case study of "Shirakawago," which is one of the World Cultural Heritage sites of Japan. Critically, it has been pointed out that the landscape of this area, which is the basis of its Cultural Heritage status, has been changing in recent years.</p><p>The expression "change" is often used to mean "deterioration" due to a rapid increase in tourism. However, the changes that have taken place in Shirakawago cannot be regarded as only deterioration in the landscape. Since, the changes in Shirakawago have also taken place in the name of "Shukei," which means an improvement project. In other words, both "deterioration" and "improvement" have arisen in Shirakawago after inscription on the World Heritage List. In fact, it depends on one's point of view as to whether each change is regarded as "deterioration" or "improvement", because there are no objective criteria for determining the suitability of such changes. Therefore, <i>who</i> judges the suitability of change inevitably becomes a problem. Moreover, there is also the important issue of the tendency to disregard the residents' point of view, though any changes (whether "deterioration" or "improvement") affect residents' lifestyles.</p><p>In this paper, I attempt to bring the residents' point of view to the foreground, and show how overlooking their concerns can cause a kind of distortion within the conservation of landscapes, considering the conflict between the two protagonists: residents and 'specialists'. Furthermore, this paper examines the reinforcement of regulations for "improvements" to the landscape after inscription on the World Heritage List, which have not received much attention thus far.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Environmental Sociology

    Journal of Environmental Sociology 12(0), 23-40, 2006

    Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008726938
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10498448
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • NDL Article ID
    8715611
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE5(社会・労働--社会問題・社会保障)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B659
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE  NDL-Digital 
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