途上国の自然資源管理における正統性の競合――インドネシア・南スマトラの事例から――  [in Japanese] Competing Legitimacy for Forest Resource Management in a Developing Country: The Case of Marga vs. the Industrial Reforestation Project in South Sumatra, Indonesia  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>本稿は,本誌第11号の特集における三浦の指摘に示唆を得て構想された。本稿では,インドネシア南スマトラ州において,強力な外部のアクターによる資源の囲い込みに対する抵抗として先住者の慣習的な森林管理権の主張が立ち現れた例を示す。ここでは,「環境共生の知恵を持つ先住者 vs 外部の開発資本」という古典的な物語に留まらず,外部のアクターも同様に「環境保全」の知識を武器に森林へのアクセス権を争っている。インドネシアの社会的文脈においては,慣習的な森林・水管理権の正統性の主張は外部の強者に対抗する上でそれなりの効力を有する。しかし,同時にこの主張は,先住性/共同性に基づく資源の独占を意味するから,移住者や被差別者など共同性の中心から遠い者を資源から排除する根拠ともなりうる。これは,私有または国有による独占と先住/共同性に基づく独占という2つの資源の独占形態が対峙した結果でもある。したがって,慣習的な共同管理権の主張が実際に弱者の排除につながるか否かは,個々の問題の歴史・地理的な背景に加えて,各アクター間の具体的な相互作用を明らかする必要があり,その手法として環境問題の政治過程論を提案する。</p>

<p>In Indonesia, customary land rights are by and large approved, although they are not always regarded as legal. Such an environment helps the deprived indigenous people to re-claim their traditional land. However, once legitimacy based on 'customs' or 'reality of life-world' becomes mainstreamed, it functions as a double-edged-sword, which can also harm the more vulnerable sectors of society.</p><p>In South Sumatra Province, clan-like genealogically-tied communal institutions, called <i>jurai</i> or <i>sumbay</i>, used to manage traditional forestland. The Palembang Kingdom of the 16 th century reorganized <i>jurai</i> into <i>Marga</i> and was later succeeded by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) to control the forest. The Dutch authorized <i>Marga Benakat</i> or the Benakat clan to maintain their customary forest by written approval in 1932. In 1967, the independent Republic of Indonesia announced that all forested land in the country was to be exclusively controlled by the Republic, dismantling local initiatives on the forest. Since then, the central government has monopolized power over forests and given logging concessions to commercial enterprises.</p><p>Traditionally, <i>Marga Benakat</i> divided their territory into two parts. One was 'Cultivation Land' where any <i>Marga</i> member could conduct slash-and-burn farming, while the other was 'Community Jungle' where cultivation and commercial logging was banned. Thus Community Jungle remained relatively well preserved and was inhabited by tigers, elephants and other endangered mammals. Abandoned ex-cultivated land could be envisaged as 'devastated land' by foresters because of its grassy or bushy cover, whereas local dwellers regarded it as a part of the cyclical process of recovering forest. In 1989, the government implemented a huge scale industrial afforestation project. Soon the reforestation estate started to enclose and log <i>Marga</i>'s forests and plant acacia mangium exclusively in the cleared fields. When the company began to fell their <i>Communal Jungle</i>, <i>Marga Benakat</i> moved to claim their customary land rights over their traditional territory.</p><p>The customary land claims of <i>Marga Benakat</i> attracted several supporters including influential NGOs both nationally and internationally. Those NGOs accused the reforestation estate of illegal logging in the area, and accentuated the sustainability of <i>Marga Benakat</i>'s traditional management over the tropical forest. On the other hand, the company emphasized their scientific engineering technologies to afforest the vast area of 'non-productive' land. Thus, two different types of legitimacy operating on different levels clashed, competing for access to the forest. Backed by the local media's anti- 'illegal logging' campaign, the dwellers reaffirmed their rights over their Community Jungle, while their customary Cultivation Land was almost all enclosed by the company. In this case, indigenous communal knowledge was able to compete with the scientific knowledge in the management of tropical forest.</p><p>However, the emphasis on 'customs' or 'reality of life-world' may also exclude the more marginalized members of society, such as migrant laborers, from the access to forest resources. In fact, many bloody conflicts between traditional communities and newcomers, sparked by the government's notorious policy known as transmigrasi, were witnessed all over Indonesia, as frustrated natives attacked the newly founded villages in an attempt to regain their ancestral domains.</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Environmental Sociology

    Journal of Environmental Sociology 12(0), 86-103, 2006

    Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008726944
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10498448
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • NDL Article ID
    8715972
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE5(社会・労働--社会問題・社会保障)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B659
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE  NDL-Digital 
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