資源の共同利用に関する正当性概念がもたらす「豊かさ」の検討――ソロモン諸島ビチェ村における資源利用の動態から――  [in Japanese] A Study of Legitimate Communal Resource Utilization for Well-being: A Case Study of the Resource Utilization Movement in Biche Village, Solomon Islands  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>本稿の目的は,ソロモン諸島ビチェ村を事例に,「自然資源を共同利用するうえで正当とみなされてきた概念」すなわち「正当性概念」を把握し,「豊かさ」の獲得における正当性概念の内包する問題点を明らかにすることである。</p><p>ビチェ村における正当性概念は,収穫物を他者に贈与する「気前の良さ」,また資源の共同利用を認め,他者への非難を禁忌とする「寛容さ」,自己の利益のみを追求しない「相互扶助」の重視,資源を共同利用するための「働きかけ」の重視,という4要素から形成されている。</p><p>1915年以降,キリスト教布教団による境界設定や旅客船の来島,商業伐採などの影響により,ビチェ村の正当性概念は,「気前の良さ」ではなく利用集団の限定化という「利己的」な方向に,「寛容さ」ではなく有償利用化という「厳格さ」に,「相互扶助」ではなく「雇用労働」の重視に,「働きかけ」ではなく「境界」の強調という方向に揺らぐこととなった。ビチェ村の人々は,この揺らぎを修復しつつ,住民間の不和を解消し,さらには気前の良い漁獲物分配と相互扶助を活発化させながら現金収入を得ていく「豊かさ」を求めていた。しかしながら,「寛容さ」は盗漁や利益の着服を厳しく非難できないという負の側面を持ち,また「気前の良さ」は収入増加を妨げた。さらに「働きかけ」の重視は,「働きかけ」なかった者に対する利益や収穫物の提供という「相互扶助」を阻害した。正当性概念は,その強調が「豊かさ」に結びつくと同時に,負の側面をも内包するという困難さを持っているのである。</p>

<p>My main priority in this paper is to examine the concept of legitimacy upheld and exercised as a social criterion by the inhabitants of Biche village for a long period of time when they used their natural resources as communal assets. Secondly, I shall demonstrate how their concept of legitimacy has been modified in accordance with their demand for well-being, which also resulted in some negative influences on their community life.</p><p>The concept of legitimacy consists of four factors; liberality, generosity, reciprocal help and practice. "Liberality" means the making of mutual concessions in distributing the communal harvest and sometimes showing a willingness to give away the harvest to others. "Generosity" means respecting the communal use of natural resources and the prohibition of criticizing others. "Reciprocal help" means working together regardless of one's own profit. The fourth is the respect for "practices" such as forest clearance, weeding, marking, and the transplanting of trees for assertion priority of resource utilization. For many years the Villagers of Biche enjoyed their well-balanced stable community life structured on the basis of the shared concept of legitimacy.</p><p>Since 1915, however, the wave of social modernization has gradually eroded their stable community life. For example, the propagation of Christianity introduced the idea of setting up borderlines, passenger boats started to stop over at the village and commercial logging commenced. Under the influence of capitalistic principles, the villagers became more concerned with obtaining profits of their own rather than appreciating "liberality". The villagers preferred paid employment to "reciprocal help". "Generosity" was diminished and they tried to set up restrictions and permit the use of natural resources only to a limited number of village inhabitants. The modernization wave caused conflict among the villagers.</p><p>In order to repair the relationships among the villagers, they wished to restore the value of "legitimacy". However, its restoration brought about some negative effects in their pursuit of a better quality of life.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Environmental Sociology

    Journal of Environmental Sociology 13(0), 125-142, 2007

    Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008726963
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10498448
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • NDL Article ID
    9314323
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE5(社会・労働--社会問題・社会保障)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B659
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE  NDL-Digital 
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