天然アユと近自然工法  [in Japanese] Understanding Wild Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) and Semi-Natural Fish Cultivation Methods as History  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>人工化された自然の典型である河川,清流の女王と呼ばれるアユ,そしてそれらと関わる人々との関係の変化は,人と自然との関わり方の近代そのものである。本稿ではアユと川と人の関係の変化を追うことを通して,「自然」や「野生」が,人と対象物,人と人との関係の変化のなかで不断に生成される歴史であり,文化であるということの意味をあらためて考えてみた。</p><p>1990年代に入り,世界中が環境問題をもっとも主要な国家的な問題として取り上げることで,あらゆる事象が環境との関わりで捉えられるようになる。このような過程を,社会の環境化と捉えると,90年代半ば以降,日本も環境化のただなかにあり,これまで自然や野生とは認識されてこなかった生物やモノが,あらためて自然,野生,環境(の破壊,保全の対象)として見直され続けている。</p><p>本稿で取り上げた河川の近自然工法による改修も,天然アユへの志向も環境化という流れのなかの歴史的な出来事である。このような流れのなかで河川もアユも環境保全という管理下に置かれることになるが,本稿が対象とした事例地では,いったん飼い慣らした自然を可能な限り放置しつつ管理するようなあり方を模索している。</p>

<p>This paper looks at changes in interactions among ayu, rivers and people, and attempts to examine the meanings of "nature" and "wild" that are created by uninterrupted history and culture through the changes of people-to-people relationships.</p><p>In the process of modernization, dams have been constructed across many Japanese rivers for the development of power sources and agricultural water utilization. The changing relationships between artificially modified rivers, ayu, a fish known as the "queen of the limpid stream", and the people who are involved, demonstrate the modern history of human interaction with wild nature. The ayu is a very popular fish that even appears in the <i>Anthology of Myriad Leaves</i> written in eighth century Japan. However, the media really started to focus on the plight of the ayu when large-scale development projects and extensive public works, such as the Nagara River estuary barrage and the tidal wetland reclamation of Isahaya Bay, began to be recognized by some as the destruction of nature. Since the 1990s, environmental problems have become one of the most important issues in the world and all sorts of phenomenon have started to be understood in relation to the environment. If we see the course of this process as the "environmentalization" of public opinion, since the mid-nineties, Japan has been in the midst of environmentalization; living matter and certain objects that didn't use to be recognized as "nature" or "wild" were reviewed continuously as "nature", "wild" and conservation or destruction of the environment.</p><p>The examples of semi-natural river reconstruction methods and the tendency to prefer wild ayu rather than farmed fish, presented in this paper, are part of the historical events of environmentalization. Under such circumstances, rivers and ayu were protected by a conservation scheme, whereas the case study mentioned in this paper, demonstrates that both river and ayu can be left in the natural state for the large part thereby returning a once domesticated nature to a semi-domesticated state.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Environmental Sociology

    Journal of Environmental Sociology 14(0), 21-37, 2008

    Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008726976
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10498448
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • NDL Article ID
    9746117
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE5(社会・労働--社会問題・社会保障)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B659
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE  NDL-Digital 
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