高齢者の社会的ネットワークにおける加齢変化とコホート差:全国高齢者縦断調査データのマルチレベル分析  [in Japanese] Age and Cohort Differences in Social Networks among Older Adults:Findings from Nationwide Longitudinal Survey for Japanese Elderly through Multilevel Analysis  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

異なるライフステージで高度経済成長期を経験した3つの出生コホート (C1: -1915年, C2: 1916-25年, C3: 1926-36年) を対象に, (1) 高齢期の社会的ネットワークやその加齢変化におけるコホート差と, (2) コホート効果の媒介要因を検討した. ネットワークは, 親友数, 親しい近隣数, 友人等との対面接触頻度, 所属グループ数, グループ参加頻度で測定した. 全国の60歳以上を対象とした7回の縦断調査から4,999人, 1万6955件のデータを用いてHierarchical Linear Modelによるマルチレベル分析を行った結果, どのネットワークも加齢に伴い曲線的に減少していたが, グループ参加の変化の仕方はコホートにより異なっていた. また, 男性では最近の2コホート (C2, C3) はC1に比べて近隣数や対面接触頻度が低いのに対し, 女性では近隣数のコホート差は男性より小さく, 親友数や接触頻度は最近のコホートのほうが高い傾向があり, 男女差 (女性>男性) が拡大していた. グループ数・参加頻度は, C1では男性のほうが女性より高かったが, 参加頻度についてはC3で男女差が逆転していた. コホート効果の一部は社会経済的要因により説明できたが, 健康・社会経済的・家族要因投入後もコホート差は残った. 本結果は, 社会的ネットワークの男女差は普遍的ではなく, コホートが経験したライフコースにより変わりうることを示している.

Japanese older adults in three birth cohorts (C1: 1915 and earlier, C2: 1916-25, C3: 1926-36) who experienced Japan's rapid economic growth after World War II at different life stages were compared to clarify 1) cohort differences in social networks and their growth trajectories in old age and 2) factors that mediate cohort effect on networks. Social networks were measured by number of (a) close friends, (b) close neighbors and (c) groups they belonged to, (d) frequency of face-to-face contact with friends, neighbors, and relatives, and (e) frequency of attendance in group meetings. Data were obtained from 7 waves of a national survey of Japanese adults aged 60 and above, conducted between 1987 and 2006, which resulted in 16,955 observations for 4,999 persons. Through multilevel analyses (Hierarchical Linear Model) , we found that each network decreased with age in a quadratic curve, and that trajectories of group participation (c, e) differed by cohort. For men, two recent cohorts (C2, C3) were more likely to have fewer neighbors and less frequent contact compared to C1. For women, cohort differences in the number of neighbors were smaller than for men, and C2-C3 were more likely to have a greater number of close friends and more frequent contact compared to C1, which resulted in greater gender differences (Female > Male) in the recent cohorts for these networks. In C1, men belonged to more groups and had more frequent participation than women, but women in C3 participated in groups more frequently than men in the same cohort. After controlling for health, socioeconomic factors, and family factors, the cohort difference still existed, although socioeconomic factors partly reduced it. These results indicate that gender differences in social networks in old age are not constant but can be varied by cohorts who experience different life courses.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 62(3), 356-374, 2011

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008730908
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    023457178
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
Page Top