「小学校規則及小学簡易科教則」下の北海道における小学校の実態 : 石狩郡親舟町外9町3村の小学校を中心に [in Japanese] The Realities of Hokkaido Elementary Schools under the Regulations of Elementary Schools and Shōgaku-kan'ika : The Cases of Oyafune Town, 9 Towns and 3 Villages in Ishikari District [in Japanese]
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the elementary education systems that the Hokkaido government put into operation in 1887. The following questions will be addressed through a study of Oyafune town, 9 towns and 3villages in Ishikari district: how did Hokkaido settlers establish and maintain elementary schools under the revised regulations, and what kind of role did these schools play among the settlers? In 1886, the Meiji government reexamined Hokkaido development policy. The next year, the Hokkaido government reformed the elementary education system and issued the following educational ordinances and regulations: regulations of elementary schools and Shogaku-kan'ika, regulation on town and village elementary schools, the official order regarding annual expenses for town and village elementary schools, and the regulation on the establishment change, and abolition of schools. The purpose of many of these regulations was to allow the Hokkaido government save on educational expenses and prioritize industry and development over public education. For this reason, approximately 96% of schools were Shogaku-kan'ika. The characteristic of Shogaku-kan'ika in Hokkaido was different from that of the mainland. The tuition fees were collected and the curriculum included "business exercises." The purpose of Shogaku-kan'ika was not to allow children to attend school, but to promote industry and development, and to secure a steady work force, while abolishing government subsidies, and placing the burden of educational expenses upon the settlers. In actuality, the settlers trying to forge new communities, would not defer educational opportunities school education was indispensable in the formation of the community. In addition, most settlers expected the establishment of elementary schools and upper elementary schools. For Hokkaido's inhabitants, schools were a symbol of the-"development" -of their new community. In this way, when the history of education in Hokkaido is separated from the reality of communities, we see that the education system that the Hokkaido government established was unsuitable to the actual circumstances of Hokkaido settlers. The people of Hokkaido actually paid for the bulk of school expenditures including their establishment and maintenance. By understanding this, the history of education in Hokkaido under modern Japan's Hokkaido development policy becomes clear.
- STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION
STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION 54(0), 32-44, 2011
The Japan Society for Historical Studies of Education