少子・高齢化が犯罪に与える影響とその中で持続可能な刑罰 (刑事政策)の在り方 (課題研究 少子・高齢化社会における犯罪・非行対策-持続可能な刑事政策を目指して):犯罪学からの提言  [in Japanese] Crime in an Aging Society with a Declining Birthrate and Sustainable Criminal Justice Policy in Japan (<Special Issue>Treatment of Offenders in an Aging Society with a Declining Birthrate:Sustainable and Socially Inclusive Criminal Justice Policy in Japan):From Retribution to Rehabilitation  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿の課題は,人口動態の変化,つまり少子・高齢化によって犯罪動向がどのように変化し,それに刑事司法制度がどのように対応しているのかを分析した上で,今後,少子・高齢化が更に進行する可能性の高い日本において,刑罰運用を含めた持続可能な刑事政策はいかにあるべきかを検討することにある.結論から言うと,少子・高齢化は,犯罪に対して最も活発な若者が減少し,犯罪に対して最も非活発な高齢者が増加するため,全体としては犯罪減少社会を作り出す.事実,罪種によって多少傾向の違いはあるが,窃盗においても,殺人においても犯罪は若者の減少と共に減少している.その一方で,年齢による犯罪率の変化を示す年齢層別検挙人員を人口比で示した犯罪曲線を詳細に分析してみると,そこには1990年代後半から微妙な変化が認められる.それは,30歳以降において加齢による犯罪の減少傾向が消失したことである.つまり,日本では,30歳を過ぎると犯罪から足を洗えなくなってきているということである.犯罪の背景要因には生活苦や社会的孤立が存在する.少子・高齢化は,消費を衰えさせ経済全体を衰弱させる.1990年代後半における経済不況の原因の一つは少子・高齢化である.つまり,少子・高齢化は,全体としては犯罪を減少させるが,不況を生み出すことで中高年の立ち直りを阻害する一面があるのである.日本の刑事司法は応報を基本とし,累犯加重を機械的に適用する傾向が強く,判決までの段階では犯罪者を更生させるという意識は乏しい.その結果として,万引きや無銭飲食などの高齢犯罪者が増加する中,彼らの多くが,軽微な犯罪の繰り返しで実刑となり,受刑者の高齢化は深刻な状況となっている.少子・高齢化社会において持続可能な刑事政策を実現させるために必要なこと,それは,これまでの「応報型司法」を改め,犯罪者の更生を可能とする「問題解決型司法」を目指すことである.そのために,同じ大陸系刑法の伝統を持ち,日本に次いで人口の高齢化が深刻なイタリアがいかに高齢犯罪者の増加を防止しているのかを参考に刑事司法改革の方向性について考える.

The primary purpose of this paper is to study the effects of socio-demographic changes in population in Japan, that is, the so-called aging society with a declining birthrate, on crime and the criminal justice system. The author discusses various problems in the Japanese criminal justice system relating to the above changes. Finally, the author advances solutions and proposed modifications to Japan's criminal justice system to solve the problems. First of all, the number of crimes in Japan has been declining in general due to the aging population with a declining birthrate. Property crime and violent crime are both normally committed by young people. The fewer young people in society, the fewer crimes. On the other hand, by looking at changes in the crime rates per capita for different age groups, the author has identified a very fundamental change that took place around the mid-1990s. Normally crime rates drop with age, especially after 30 years of age. After the mid-1990s, on the contrary, crime rates remained stable with age after 30 years old in Japan. People have not stopped committing crimes after 30 years of age in Japan. As a root cause of crime, there is usually some hardship of life such as economic difficulties or social isolation. An aging society with a declining birthrate has caused a severe recession in the Japanese economy. The fewer young people in the society, the fewer goods are sold. Retired people are not likely to buy cars and business attire. The low level of consumption is cooling down the Japanese economy, which has struck hard at the lives of middle aged and older people. More and more elderly people have either committed suicide or engaged in crime and have been arrested by the police. The Japanese criminal justice system has operated based on the theory of retributive justice. While judges and prosecutors sometimes show leniency to criminals, they basically consider that criminals should be punished and pay for their crimes. They are not interested in rehabilitation of the offenders and do not take this into account in their decision-making. The rule of aggravated punishment for a second conviction is automatically applied even to repeated petty shoplifting by elderly people. Therefore, the number of elderly prisoners is increasing drastically in Japan mainly for very petty offenses. In order to solve the problem and reform the criminal justice to meet the challenges of an aging society with declining birthrate, the author argues that the criminal justice system in Japan should turn from retributive justice to problem-solving justice, with an emphasis on rehabilitating offenders. The author proposes how the criminal justice system in Japan should be reformed by comparing it with the Italian criminal justice system.

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology

    Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology 36(0), 76-106, 2011

    Japanese Association of Sociological Criminology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008802547
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00206207
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • ISSN
    0386-460X
  • NDL Article ID
    11292892
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZA31(政治・法律・行政--刑法・刑事政策)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z2-611
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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