幕末石見銀山領における就業移動--持高階層別家再生産率に関連して  [in Japanese] Migration and employment in late Edo period in Iwami Silver Mine Territory: why was household reproduction rate the lowest among non-tenant peasants?  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

幕末における出生率上昇,人口増加は,低階層ほど多い(就業に伴う)移動が減少することによりその出生率と家の再生産率が上昇することによってもたらされたとの予想のもとに,幕末石見銀山領における階層別の移動率を観察し,その高さが,10石以上層を別として,階層の高さに反比例することを示すことができた。同時に,家族を残した就業に関わる移動と考えられる出職という記載が宗門改帳にわずかに発見されたが,この記載は,幕末の緊迫した情勢によって一部の村で例外的に行われたものと考えられ,出職の多くは,一度,転出(出人)と記載されたあと,村内の宗門改帳から除外されたと考えられる。この宗門改帳上不在の家成員は,1年に何度か帰宅することがあったとしても,出職が結婚している者の結婚生活にとってさまたげになり,あるいは未婚者の結婚年齢を遅くし,その結果,家の再生産率を低下させ,その階層差を生み出す重要な原因と考えられる。同時に,宗門改帳による在村人口のみによって計算した結婚率や出生率は出職者を多く含む階層では見かけ上やや高くなるものといえる。このことから,1石未満層に比べ無高層の家再生産率は低いにもかかわらず,結婚率と出生率は高くなったものと考えられる。With the anticipation that the rise in fertility and in population growth rate were caused by the decrease in outmigration from villages for employment among lower class peasants in late Tokugawa Period, I examined the migration rate by stratum of landholding in Iwami Silver Mine Territory villages. Consequently, the rate was found to be in reverse proportion to the rank of the landholding of peasants except those with 10 koku and more, which is in accord with the anticipation.Very rare descriptions of "deshoku", meaning going out for work leaving family members were found in Shūmon Aratamechō of a few villages. Besides, among 21 deshoku workers recorded in a document of a village, only one was registered as a resident in Shūmon Aratamechō of the village. Hence, it was inferred that the description of deshoku was exceptionally carried out by the unstable circumstances in late Tokugawa Period in Iwami, which was situated close to the country of Chōshū that revolted against the Shogunate government and that most deshoku workers were not written as such but only registered as emigrants when getting out of the villages for the first time in the Shūmon Aratamechō.Therefore, deshoku is considered to be the important hidden cause to decrease the household reproduction rate by delaying marriage of the never−married and by hindering marital life of the married for the lower classes of peasants. Also, this can be concluded as the mechanism that the lowest class of peasants of no landholding had a higher marital rate and fertility rate but a lower rate of reproduction of household calculated for residents of villages registered in the Shūmon Aratamechō than those with minimul landholding less than one koku had.

Journal

  • Studies of San'in region

    Studies of San'in region (3), 1-36, 2010-12

    Shimane University

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110008802841
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA12382442
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    1883468X
  • NDL Article ID
    11017324
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG65
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-X576
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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