琉球語から見た日本語希求形式=イタ=の文法化経路(<特集>琉球語を見る/琉球語から見る) On the Grammaticalisation Path Leading to the Japanese Desiderative -ita-(<Special Issue>Views of Ryukyuan, Views from Ryukyuan)

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琉球のいくつかの方言にみられる希求形式の使用状況から、琉球方言の=イタシ系の希求形式は生理的に不随意の身体機能を表す動詞のみと共起し、必要性を訴えるのが古い使用法であると考えられる。この=イタシは「痛みを感じるほど痛烈に感じる状態に達する」という意味から発達したとみられるものである。本土日本語の=イタシも、「甚(イタ)シ」からではなく、琉球方言と同じ文法化の経路をたどって、希求形式になったと思われ、その文法化の出だしは日琉祖語の時代に遡ると推測される。

As the desiderative, -itasi first appears as a colloquial expression. This paper proposes a scenario of how the adjective itasi became a desiderative, taking over from the earlier -amaFosi, based on a distinction between post-verbal POSI and ITASI observed in a number of Ryukyuan dialects. In the Hatoma dialect (Southern Ryukyuan), -pus- (POSI) is the desiderative form, but -cca- (ITASI) is also attested, used predominantly when denoting involuntary physical actions. A similar situation is found in the Northern Ryukyuan dialect of Tsuha. In the Agarisuji dialect (Southern Ryukyuan), both POSI and ITASI can be used with the same verbs but the -cca- (ITASI) form implies a very strong form of desire, bordering on necessity. Necessity is what ITASI with involuntary actions indicates, so it can be seen that the Agarisuji situation is a development of the situation observed in the other dialects, with ITASI now co-occurring with controllable actions. It has been noted in the literature that, in contrast with -amaFosi, -itasi was commonly used with verbs expressing physiological desires. This is what would be expected if desiderative ITASI developed from the use of ITASI with involuntary physiological processes, meaning 'extreme feeling / necessity'. I propose that the desiderative usage of ITASI developed from a much earlier usage of ITASI with verbs denoting involuntary physical actions, meaning 'need to'. This is attested in the form nebu-tasi 'be sleepy', but it would also have been widely used in reference to other actions like going to the toilet or vomiting. Because the semantic change from 'sore' to 'physical necessity' appears to be rare (although a similar change is attested in the Yuman language of Hualapai), it is proposed that ITASI already had this meaning in Proto Japano-Ryukyuan, and that the development from 'physical necessity' to desiderative took place independently in mainland Japanese and the Ryukyuan dialects where ITASI is the general desiderative.

収録刊行物

  • 日本語の研究

    日本語の研究 7(4), 30-38, 2011

    日本語学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110009436723
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11998386
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    特集
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    11253591
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z71-M894
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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