サイレージにおける微生物の動態  [in Japanese] Microorganisms in Grass and Silage : Their Sequent Changes during Ensilage  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 森地 敏樹 MORICHI Toshiki
    • 農林水産省畜産試験場加工部 National Institute of Animal Industry, Ministry of Agriculture, Ferestry and Fisheries

Abstract

主として著者らの実験成績に基づいて,サイレージにおける微生物の動態を論じた。作物には,乳酸菌,特にlactobacilliは比較的少数しか存在しない。サイロの密封が完全で,しかも十分量の炭水化物があれば,lactobacilliの迅速な増殖と,それに伴なう好気性グラム陰性菌の減少が必ずおこる。十分に低いpHはclostridiaの生育を阻止する。埋蔵初期にサイロに空気が侵入すると,サイレージは望ましくない醗酵をおこす。この好気的条件下でグラム陰性菌の活発な増殖が促進される。その結果lactobacilliの生育は抑制され,pHは十分には低下しない。サイロを密封するとグラム陰性菌が残存酸素を急速に消費し,嫌気条件を生ずる。このように高いpHと嫌気条件はclostridiaの生育を促進し,最終的には品質のきわめて不良なサイレージを生ずる。グルコース添加と組み合わせた乳酸菌Lactobacillus plantarumの接種によって,空気侵入による悪影響を克服できる。またサイロ開封後の好気的変敗に関与する酵母・糸状菌のタイプと挙動についても述べた。

Types of microorganisms in grass and silages, and their changes during ensilage were discussed mainly based upon the authors' experimental results. Lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli, are found in relatively small numbers on fresh herbage. Provided that sealing of silo is perfect and sufficient amounts of water soluble carbohydrates are available, rapid increase in lactobacilli and concomitant decrease in aerobic Gram-negative bacteria take place in a short period after ensiling. The resulting low pH inhibits the growth of clostridia. Invasion of air into a silo for a certain period after ensiling definitely brings about undesirable fermentation according to the following mechanism: Under the aerobic condition thus induced, active multiplication of Gram-negative bacteria is promoted. As a result, growth of lactobacilli is suppressed therefore pH does not fall satisfactorily. Following the sealing of the silo, Gram-negative bacteria rapidly consume the remaining oxygen and brings about anaerobic condition. Thus the combined high pH and anaerobic conditions promote the growth of clostridia, finally producing silage of very poor quality with large amounts of butyric acid. Inoculation of herbage with Lactobacillus plantarum, combined with glucose addition at ensiling, could overcome the adverse effect of the air invasion and produce high quality silage. Types and behaviour of yeasts and fungi, which are responsible for aerobic deterioration of silages after opening silo, were also described.

Journal

  • Soil Microorganisms

    Soil Microorganisms 24(0), 7-15, 1982

    Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009467563
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0912-2184
  • Data Source
    NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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