「ツベイ」と「ツベシイ」 : 助動詞「ベシ」のシク活用化について Tsubei and Tsubeshii : The Shiku Conjugation Change of the Auxiliary Verb Beshi

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助動詞「ベシ」は本来ク活用だが,中世室町期にはシク活用化したものが見られる。本稿では,シク活用化が「ツ+ベシ」である「ツベイ」でのみ起きることに注目し,「ベシ」の意味の二面性とモダリティ体系の史的変遷との関わりから,その要因を考察する。「ベシ」の意味は,状態・性質を表す〈事態的意味〉と,話し手の判断作用を表す〈認識的意味〉とに大別される。「ツベシ」「ヌベシ」は,中古から〈事態的意味〉専用の形式として存しており,「ツベシ」が「可能」,相補的に「ヌベシ」は「潜勢状態」を表す。室町期に,「ツベイ」から「ツベシイ」が生じたのは状態を評価的に表すためで,当期にク活用形容詞からシク活用形容詞が派生した現象と一連のものと捉えられる。また,当期には「ウズ」が,「ベシ」の〈認識的意味〉を担って,「ベシ」は文語化する。〈事態的意味〉を表す「ツベイ」は,「ベシ」より長く口語に残り,後代,「サウナ」等が発達するまで命脈を保ったものと考えられる。

The auxiliary verb beshi was originally conjugated with ku. However, during the Muromachi period, one begins to see examples of shiku conjugation appearing as well. In this paper we focus on the fact that in shiku conjugations, this change only occurs in the example of tsubei (originally tsu+beshi). We investigate the reasons for this by considering the dual meanings of beshi, as well as the historical change of its system of modality. The meaning of beshi is broadly divided into the two functions of (1) expressing the state or nature of something (an expression of state-of-affairs) and (2) expressing the operation of the speaker's judgment (an expression of epistemic modality). Tsubeshi and nubeshi have existed as exclusive forms of the 'state-of-affairs' meaning of beshi since the Heian period, whereas tsubeshi expressed 'possibility (dynamic possibility)', and complimentarily, nubeshi expressed 'probability (existential possibility)'. During the Muromachi period, from tsubei, tsubeshii developed, which was used to express a state in an evaluative manner. This can be interpreted as one phenomenon within the process of shiku-conjugated adjectives coming to be derived from ku-conjugated adjectives, a change that occurred during this period. Also, uzu assumed the 'epistemic' meaning of beshi, and it was beshi that was incorporated into the literary language. Tsubei, which expresses the 'state- of-affairs' meaning of beshi, remained in the spoken language longer than beshi. It is thought that tsubei remained in existence until the development and progression of expressions such as sona (written as sauna).

収録刊行物

  • 日本語の研究

    日本語の研究 8(1), 29-44, 2012

    日本語学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110009479832
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11998386
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    023462164
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z71-M894
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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