人形浄瑠璃における「情」の重視と三人遣い操法の成立 [in Japanese] The establishment of the operation method of Bunraku puppets : How to express the character's feelings by three puppeteers [in Japanese]
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In Bunraku, a single puppet is manipulated by three puppeteers. In this paper, we will consider the method of operating Bunraku puppets by referring to the theory of the Joruri narrative because Bunraku is formed by uniting Joruri and puppets. In the 17th century, special puppeteers, Tezuma ningyotsukai, appeared and showed off their clever techniques. Bunraku puppeteers, under the influence of them, wanted to manipulate finer movements and needed two assistants as co-operators. Thus, the manipulation method of Bunraku puppets was established in 1734. Furthermore, the mechanism inside of the Bunraku puppet head was made for richer expression of emotion; these mechanisms were used to show the puppeteer's technique in Tezuma puppets. Actually at that time, there was a significant change in the artistic theory of Joruri. From that point, the importance of expressing the feelings of the characters has been established. There is a similar claim written later in the theoretical book about how to operate the Bunraku puppets. In brief, the operation method of Bunraku puppets was established for expressing the character's feelings, in accordance with the artistic theory of Joruri.
Aesthetics 62(2), 37-48, 2011
The Japanese Society for Aesthetics