陸軍将校の選抜・昇進構造:──陸幼組と中学組という二つの集団── Structure of Selection and Promotion in the Japanese Imperial Army::Two Groups in Military Officer Society
教育社会学的な歴史研究は，官僚群との対立や青年将校運動といった昭和陸軍の動きを，「陸軍将校＝農業層」「帝大生・官僚＝新中間層」という階層的差異をもとに葛藤モデルから論じてきている。しかし，そこでは陸軍将校の有力構成員たる陸幼組は分析対象から捨象されがちだった。本稿は，陸軍将校を「陸幼組／中学組」という二つの集団に分けつつ，その選抜，学歴キャリア，昇進の諸構造を検討したうえで，昭和陸軍の動向に考察を加えるものである。<br> 陸軍将校を構成する陸幼組と中学組は社会的背景の重なりは小さかった。また，前者が陸士，陸大の成績が良かったゆえ，昇進でも（農業出身の多い）後者より優勢だった。すなわち，学歴・成績主義を原理に形成される将校集団の構造は，上層において農業色が弱化し都会色が強まるという傾向を帯びていたのである。<br> 大正後期以降の政治的変化のなかで，陸軍は自己益と国益を，統帥権という威力に拠って重ね合わせていこうとする。統帥権の顕在化，および軍事専門職としての強い自覚を促すという，新たな社会状況のなかで始動した昭和陸軍の主力は，農業出身層ではなく，二・三代目の武官たちであり，官・軍エリートの衝突もこの文脈で把握されるべきだと思われる。<br> 確かに，農業層出身の陸軍将校は少なくなかった。しかし，彼らは昇進構造において傍流に位置し，影響力をもちえなかったのである。
It is commonly believed that because many military officers in Japan were brought up in farming families, this attribute was related to "the principle of basing the countryʼs economy on agriculture" and that this was the cause of the reckless behavior of the Imperial Army. Moreover it has been said that differences between the attributes of military officers and bureaucrats of other ministries led to serious conflict in the Showa Era. However, this opinion overlooks an important viewpoint, namely, the existence among officers of graduates of the army cadet schools.<br><br>The purpose of this paper is to reexamine this popular opinion, especially through a comparative analysis of two groups in military officer society, looking at the discrepancy between the graduates of the cadet schools and those of middle schools, from three angles, (1) the selection of officers, (2) their academic records, and (3) their promotions. We then discuss the Armyʼs actions in the Showa Era.<br><br>The social attributes of the two groups forming the officer corps of the Imperial Army were not similar to each other. The cadet school graduates found their base in the new middle class in terms of social stratum, and came from urban areas. On the other hand, the middle school graduates were firmly connected with the old middle class and with non-urban districts. The attributes of the former were closer to those of Imperial University students in this sense.<br><br>In general, the cadet school group performed better academically than the middle school group at the Military Academy. The upper layer in the academic ranking was mainly occupied by this group, while on the contrary, the middle school group was concentrated in the lower layer. As this gap was directly reflected in the chance of gaining entrance into the Military Staff College, which was a gateway to elite officer positions, honor graduates at both the Academy and the College were nearly monopolized by the cadet school graduates.<br><br>Within the Army, the academic records (at the Academy and the College) had a major influence on officersʼ promotions. In other words, these two factors were correlated. Consequently, the middle school graduates tended to be cornered into retirement earlier than the cadet school graduates. Further, it was natural that members of this group had a much better chance of gaining key posts in the Ministry of War, Office of Army General Staff, and Inspectorate General of Military Training, as compared with the middle school group.<br><br>Therefore, most of these high-ranking officers came from the new middle class. Their social background was roughly equivalent to that of high officials (from other ministries).<br><br>These findings show that officers from the old middle class had less power and influence than is commonly assumed, and that most of them were just passive onlookers of the movement toward militarism. Officers from the new middle class played the leading role in the Showa-era Army, which was started under the "emergence of supreme command" and "self-awareness of professionalism."
教育社会学研究 87(0), 25-45, 2010