豊国大明神号の創出過程に関する一考察 On the deification of Toyotomi Hideyoshi as Toyokuni Daimyojin
This article examines the backdrop against which Toyotomi Hideyoshi was deified with the title of Toyokuni Daimyojin instead of Shin-Hachiman, the title he himself specified in his last will and testament. Despite the fact that who actually promoted deification has by no means been made clear, the author argues that it is necessary to keep in mind that deification was a policy implemented in the midst of the unstable political situation that characterized post-Hideyoshi Japan, and therefore any discussion over who promoted that policy should proceed from an appraisal of the actual situation at that particular time. As a result of the examination of new historical sources clarifying the meaning of the title of Daimyojin and the Toyokuni Shrine and helping to identify those who were involved in their creation within the context of the contemporary political situation, the author has reached the following four conclusions: 1) The title of Daimyojin, which conflicted with Hideyoshi's own wishes, was instituted between the 5th day of the 3rd month and the 10th day of the 4th month of the 4th year of the Keicho Era (1599) under the auspices of Emperor Goyozei, Tokugawa Ieyasu and the vassals of the Toyotomi Clan. 2) Regarding the creation of a brand new title contrary to the wishes of its recipient by emphasizing the idea of Japan as "Toyokuni" (land of prosperity), the consent of Tokugawa Ieyasu was obtained amidst the political chaos arising from the sudden death of the country's supreme commander from ill health during the expeditionary campaigns being waged in Korea and for the purpose of maintaining the centrifugal character of the Toyotomi regime and stabilizing every possible political situation. Consequently, for Ieyasu deification was intended to not only deeply honor the fallen leader, but also to make a clear political statement that Japan had never nor would ever be defeated and conquered by the likes of the Ming Dynasty. 3) In addition, there is the distinct possibility that Ieyasu initially considered between the time just before Hideyoshi's death and the 7th month of Keicho 4 (1599) changing the name Toyotomi to Minamoto. 4) Viewing the situation from Ieyasu's personal political standpoint, the deification of Hideyoshi with the title of Shin-Hachiman would have meant linking him to the genealogy of the patron deity of the Minamoto Clan; however, concluding that Hideyoshi even after his death should be recognized as a Toyotomi as he lived, Ieyasu decided to abandon the initial plan, ignore Hideyoshi's wishes and newly establish the title Toyokuni Daimyojin.
史学雑誌 121(11), 1878-1900, 2012