婚姻制度からみた親子関係  [in Japanese] Parent-Child Relationships and the Institution of Marriage  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

近代婚姻制度では、婚姻と性と生殖の〈三位一体〉制度がとられ、子どもを産み・育てるという再生産機能は婚姻内だけに期待され、親子関係は婚姻関係と結びつけられ、嫡出推定によって法的な父親が定められる。先進諸外国では近年、同棲・婚外出産・離婚・ひとり親家庭や再婚家庭が増え、人間の再生産機能は婚姻家族だけでなく多様な形態の家族によって遂行されるようになる。子どもの人権尊重やライフスタイルへの中立性の観点から、家族法が改正され、「嫡出・非嫡出子」の概念が取り除かれ、「嫡出推定」「嫡出否認」の制度は廃止される。親の婚姻関係を超えて父子関係が形成され、離婚後も共同親権が認められる。一方日本においては、婚前の性関係は一般的になるものの、嫡出制の規範が支持され、「婚姻-生殖」の結合関係が維持される。日本では、法的親子関係がいかに婚姻制度を軸にして展開されているかを、親の婚姻関係の有無で異なる父子関係の形成、嫡出推定の排除方法、国際婚外子の国籍、非婚の父の出生届、離婚後の単独親権や養育責任追及制度から検討し、その問題点を明かにする。

In the institution of modern marriage, sex, reproduction and marriage are considered inseparable, and the functions of reproduction such as childbirth and child-rearing are expected to be exercised within marriage. Moreover, the parent-child relationship is strongly connected with the marital relationship and a legal father is determined by the presumption of legitimacy. In many Western industrialized countries in recent years, with the increase in non-marital cohabitation, births outside marriage, divorce, single-parent families and reconstituted families, the functions of human reproduction have been performed not only within the legally-married family but also within variant family forms. From the standpoint of respect for the human rights of children and a neutrality of lifestyles, such countries have revised laws relating to families, so that the concepts of legitimacy and illegitimacy have been abolished, along with the presumption or denial of legitimacy. Father-child relationships are formed regardless of the parents' marital relationships and joint custody after divorce is accepted. In Japan, although premarital sex is common, many people strongly advocate the norm of legitimacy, and maintain the pairing of marriage and reproduction. In order to view how legal parent-child relationships evolve from the institution of marriage, I considered different formations of father-child relationships from the standpoint of whether or not the father was married to the child's mother, and examine problems in the denial of the presumption of legitimacy, the nationality of an international child born outside marriage, the notification of birth by an unmarried father, single custody, and the institution of responsibility for the rearing of a child.

Journal

  • Kansai Sociological Review

    Kansai Sociological Review 4(0), 66-74, 2005

    Kansai Sociological Association

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009564759
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11666921
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • ISSN
    1347-4057
  • NDL Article ID
    7391889
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZV1(一般学術誌--一般学術誌・大学紀要)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-H426
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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