慧解脱者は四禅を必要としないのか [in Japanese] Does not One Called Pannavimutta Need Jhana? [in Japanese]
Access this Article
Search this Article
It is the highest purpose in Buddhism to detach all pains (dukkha), attain the nirvana (nibbana), and become an arhat (arahant). However, among the arhats who have achieved spiritual enlightenment, various kinds of arthats exist. In SN.8.7 Pavarana (SN.I.191), the Buddha explained four kinds of arhats that tevijja, chalabhinna, ubhatobhagavimutta, pannnavimutta. In this text, tevijja and chalabhinna are explained as an arhat who is "a possessor of the threefold clear vision" and "a possessor of the six branches of higher knowledge," respectively. However, the explanation about ubhatobhagavimutta and pannavimutta is not clear in this text. On the other hand, both kinds of arhat are variously explained in other places. How then should we understand these two terms? At first glance, ubhatobhagavimutta is those who have attained cetovimutti and pannavimutti, and pannavimutta is those who have attained only pannavimutti. In addition, according to AN.2.3 Bala-vagga 10 (AN.I.61) in connection with cetovimutti and pannavimutti, one would leave raga and attain cetovimutti by practicing samatha. On the other hand, one would leave avijja and attain pannavimutti by practicing vipassana. According to the above viewpoint, ubhatobhagavimutta will mean those who practice samatha and vipassana for the attainment of cetovimutti and pannavimutti. And pannavimutta is those who practice only vipassana just for the attainment of pannavimutti. In other word, it could be understood here that ubhatobhagavimutta requires jhana or aruppa, whereas pannavimutta requires neither jhana nor aruppa. However, is that right? If it was right, why has the example of pannavimutti mentioned independently not yet found in the early Pali Canon (Nikaya) despite of a plenty of examples that cetovimutti and pannavimutti are mentioned together? In order to understand this problem, especially the relation between pannavimutta and jhana from the early Pali Canon's point of view, I have studied the previous works focused on the early Pali Canon and have reached to the following conclusions. 1. At first glance, ubhatobhagavimutta is those who have attained cetovimutti and pannavimutti, and pannavimutta is those who have attained only pannavimutti. The former is so, but the latter is not. Unlike its term, pannavimutta has attained not only pannavimutti but cetovimutti as well. This is why, in early Pali Canon, we have not found the example of pannavimutti mentioned independently despite of a plenty of examples that cetovimutti and pannavimutti are mentioned together. 2. Ubhatobhagavimutta is explained that they experience santa vimokha and attha vimokha. Santa vimokha and attha vimokha are the spiritual stage of aruppa which is beyond jhana. On the other hand, although pannavimutta has no experience of either santa vimokha or attha vimokha, they also attain cetovimutti, not only pannavimutti. This clarifies that samatha was needed by pannavimutta. However, samatha mentioned here is only a stage of jhana for the attainment of cetovimutti, not yet attaining the stage of aruppa. In short, pannavimutta needs jhana.
- Journal of Pali and Buddhist Studies
Journal of Pali and Buddhist Studies 26(0), 1-13, 2012
Society for the Study of Pali and Buddhist Culture