シカゴ学校改革における学校評議会制度の意義 : RollowとBrykの議論を手がかりとして(II 研究報告) [in Japanese] THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LOCAL SCHOOL COUNCILS SYSTEM IN CHICAGO SCHOOL REFORM(II. RESEARCH REPORTS) [in Japanese]
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The purpose of this paper is to clarify the unknown significances of the Local School Councils System (LSCs) in Chicago School Reform. Though the LSCs have been regarded in general as a means of lay control over education, they should be regarded by nature as a sphere for a civic conference on education. In that perspective, this paper analyses the LSCs theoretically, focusing on the writings of Rollow and Bryk. These authors criticize the traditional conceptions of school politics for reducing all activities of individuals into a competition of private interests. Moreover, they say that public interests have begun to be observed since the implementation of the Chicago School Reform. They also pay attention to the importance of public discussion about common affairs based on local democratic politics. Public discussion in the LSCs means a civic conference on education, which needs to be investigated further in order to clarify the significances of the LSCs. The definition of the school is the most important theme in the public discussion of the LSCs. It should not be received as an ordinary word but should be positively formed as an objective category of decision-making concerning education. It includes the mission, goals, or ganization, operations, and relationship to the broader community of the school. It is a term that is meant to both be challenged and reestablished. Lay members in LSCs can deal with this because of its comprehensive character. They can also evaluate and make new directions of education through this concept. Public discussion in the LSCs has both functional and processual features. The first functional feature is to make evaluations of schooling by local communities available. In this evaluation, normative basic values for which activities in schools are based can be examined. The second functional feature is to create an alternative schooling and then give social support for it. On the other hand, as concerns processual features, the first is that the legitimacy of conflicts be approved in public discussion. Second, public interest is able to be formed in the process of this public discussion. These two processual features reinforce each other. In the process of public discussion, the public skills of the LSCs' members play an important role. With the above considerations, this paper comes to the following two conclusions: The LSCs have the first significance in that parents and community members can challenge education at each school without bringing unfair pressure upon it. The second significance is that the LSCs can enrich the cultural background for educational decision-making.
- Bulletin of the Japan Educational Administration Society
Bulletin of the Japan Educational Administration Society 23(0), 135-146, 1997
The Japan Educational Administration Society