英国「子ども法2004」の制定に見る子ども行政の一元化の理念と動向 : 「社会投資国家」論の批判的検討を土台として(II 研究報告) [in Japanese] THE IDEAL AND THE TREND OF INTEGRATED CHILD SERVICES IN ENGLAND: ENACTING "THE CHILDREN ACT 2004" AND CRITICAL DELIBERATION ON THE "SOCIAL INVESTMENT STATE"(II. RESEARCH REPORTS) [in Japanese]
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The risks and difficulties surrounding children in Japan have recently become complex and various, while the system of compartmentalized administration and division of services for children at the same time prevent them from accessing appropriate care or services. A holistic approach to the integration of child services should thus be considered. In England, integration and arrangement of child services has recently been promoted through "The Children Act 2004," which was enacted in November 2004. The aims of this paper are as follows: First, the paper examines the process of formation of "The Children Act 2004." Second, this paper confirms the tendency towards the integration of child services by focusing on the "Children's Trust," which plans to expand its activities throughout England. Third, this paper provides a critical consideration of the theory of the "social investment state" which is behind child policy in England by making a thorough examination of the guarantee of the rights of the child. Fourth, this paper will refer to the direction and problems of child services in England and make new suggestions for child services in Japan. "The Children Act 2004" embodied the ideal of "Every Child Matters," published in 2003, as upholding "Accountability and Integration-Locally, Regionally and Nationally" for promoting children's well-being. Section 10 of "The Children Act 2004" requires child service as a duty, with the aim of "cooperation to improve well-being." Under this ideal of the duty of cooperation, child services in local areas have been integrated into the "Children's Trust." The Children's Trust is one among many partnerships between different organizations. The characteristics of the Children's Trust are as follows: 1) Inter-agency, 2) Local, and 3) Shared budget, information and plan. An important part of the background concerning promotion of the integration of child services in England is the existence of the "social investment state." A strategy of social inclusion which targets children and youth was adopted under New Labour based on "social investment." However, the strategy of social inclusion, especially policies for employment and labour, includes both dilemmas and coercion since the strategy has the risk of exclusion for those who could not meet the standards. By the same token, there are some strained relations between "social investment" and "rights of the child" in policy-making for children, with aspects of the "rights of the child" even being placed in low priority. The recently elected Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, espouses the theory of "social investment," and decided to re-arrange cabinet ministries related to child services so that the policies for children as a strategy of "social investment" and "social inclusion" would be promoted strongly by the new government. The dilemma which thus arises is brought into clear focus by the strategy of social inclusion, which should mean governance by a movement that is demanding rights.
- Bulletin of the Japan Educational Administration Society
Bulletin of the Japan Educational Administration Society 34(0), 108-124, 2008
The Japan Educational Administration Society