芸術のエコロジーへむけて : デンマークの障害者美術学校における絵画制作活動を事例に  [in Japanese] An Ecological View of Art : Painting Activities in Art Schools for the Mentally Handicapped in Denmark  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

芸術人類学にとって目下最重要の課題は「表象主義」の克服にある。ここでいう表象主義とは、芸術に関する諸問題を何であれ世界の「再現/表象」の問題に還元して理解する立場を指す。相対主義にせよ構築主義にせよ、従来の視点の多くがこの立場を共有してきた。だが表象主義は、外的世界と内的世界の二項対立を前提とするがゆえに、究極的には芸術の営みを私たちが生きるこの世界から排除し、いわば神秘化することへとつながる。知覚心理学者ギブソンを嗜矢とする生態学的なアプローチは、こうした表象主義とそれが依拠する二元論を乗りこえるための一方策となりうる。人間と環境の相互依存性を原則とする彼の視角は、メルロ=ポンティの現象学的身体論や絵画論にも通底する。またこの視角が含意するプラグマティックな存在論は、ジェルの芸術論とも基本的な考えを共有する。これをふまえ、本論ではデンマークの障害者美術学校における知的な障害のある人たちの絵画制作活動を検討する。活動現場で注目すべきは、一見謎めいた生徒たちの制作が、実際にはその周囲の事物との緊密なかかわりあいのなかで実現している点である。制作に関わる技能や動機づけは、その内的特性にも外的要因にも還元しえず、身体を具えたかれらと環境との共働や交流にこそ成立する。一方、制作された作品が既存の社会関係や実践を予想外の方向へ導くこともある。作品はいったん出来上がると環境の一部となり、制作者本人を含む行為者たちに新たな行為の可能性を提供する。作品を介してもたらされた世界との新しい関係は、制作者自身の自己関係へと還流し、後続する制作のための新しい土台ともなる。本論では、こうした障害者美術学校における絵画制作活動を事例に、制作から作品の働き、その生への接合までを一連の出来事として捉えなおすことで、従来の芸術人類学で支配的だった表象主義を真に克服する「芸術のエコロジー」をめざす。

<p>One pressing issue in the anthropology of art today is to overcome 'representationalism,' Representionalism here means a standpoint that seeks to inquire into questions about art by reducing them to questions about the representation of any world or reality. Whether relativism or constructivism, much of our theorizing on art has shared that standpoint. However, representationalism ultimately leads to excluding the origin of art from the world in which we live, because that standpoint is actually enabled by the premise of the dichotomy between the external-objective world (the physical, body, nature, etc.) and the internal-subjective world (the mental, mind, culture, etc.) . That standpoint is based on the traditional idea of so-called 'cognitivism,' which reduces human cognition to the operation of mental representations in our brain, so as such, the origin of art is often shut away in the 'inner world' of artist, completely mystifying the practice. For example, one genre of modern art is called 'Art Brut.' But it is a typical case of the mystification of art in a sense that its notion is defined by the peripheral condition in the sociocultural world in which its makers (include psychiatric patients, prisoner, or the mentally-disabled persons) are situated, and their absolute 'solitude, silence, and secret.' The ecological approach created by J. J. Gibson, an American perceptual psychologist, suggests one way out of the problem of representationalism and dichotomy. His perspective, which stresses in principle the reciprocity between humans and the environment, closely parallels M. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological thought on body and his unique theory of painting. Merleau-Ponty says that every use of the human body is already 'a primordial expression,' and that the painter's work is to prolong that expressive operation of the body and amplify it into painting. 'It is by lending his body to the world that the artist changes the world into painting.' According to Merleau-Ponty, painting/art is not the representation of the world but the crystallization of the painter's/artist's style of dwelling in the world. Another crucial implication of Gibson's approach is pragmatic ontology. Unlike substantial ontology, pragmatic ontology associates reality not with substantial essence but with relational action. As Gibson says about his theory of affordance, 'the object offers what it does because it is what it is.' By the way, Gibson's view shares basic ideas with the anthropological theory of art of A. Gell, since he also seeks to consider the efficacy of the art object in the relational field of actions in which objects are situated. According to Gell, the art object is not a vehicle of meaning, such as a sign or symbol in semiologic or interpretative theories of art, but an index in which the artist's intentionality and agency are inscribed. It causes its viewers to act through the process of abduction, and by doing so it creates a social relation around itself, which in turn provides a channel for further social relations and influences. Based on the above discussions, this paper examines painting activities in two art schools for people with mental disabilities in Denmark. Those schools are a part of the network of activity and employment offers for the mentally handicapped that has been established in each community since the 1990's. But their distinctive feature is their management by the framework and ideas of adult learning (leisure), known as folkeoplysning, which developed in Denmark in the 19^<th> century. Some of the students in the art school participate for just one year, while some move into and out of the school every a few years. Still others have continued to participate for many years as 'artists.' First, it should be noted that</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology

    Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology 77(4), 544-565, 2013

    Japanese Society of Cultural Anthropology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009603515
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11958949
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-0648
  • NDL Article ID
    024681466
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-240
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
Page Top