宗教性の測定 : 国際比較研究を目指して The Measurement of Religiosity : Future International Comparative Research
In traditional cross-national research on religion, religiosity is measured by religious behavior such as "religious affiliation" or "church attendance," as well as religious consciousness such as "relationship to a God," "distance from a God," or "devotion." These variables have been used in Western countries, where many follow Christianity, and applied in cross-national studies. In the modern globalized world, however, we have serious reservations as to whether these variables accurately measure the religiosity of the Japanese, many of whom believe in multitudinous gods (specifically, "8 million gods"). In addition, compared to Western countries, in Japan fewer studies have discussed the relationship between religiosity and social awareness or behavior by employing quantitative methods. This paper employs "procedural equivalence" as a criterion for judgment. This means that certain questions work in the same manner as in Western countries. We explore questions that allow for future international comparative research, and take the "importance of a religious attitude (or a religious mind)" used in Japanese National Character Surveys by the Institute of Statistical Mathematics as a measurement of Japanese religiosity, examining its relationship to social awareness or behavior. We used a sample of 1,455 Japanese men and women aged 25-59; responses were obtained through an interview survey conducted in 2010 by the Stratification and Social Psychology Project (SSP Project). Multiple regression analysis showed that a person's religious attitude has a positive effect on his/her volunteer activities, altruistic activities, voting behavior in elections, traditional consciousness based on the family system, attitudes towards economic inequality, and his/her sense of social responsibility. These results are similar to that of previous studies conducted in Western countries. However, we did not find that a religious attitude affects satisfaction as such, and only affects job satisfaction and income satisfaction. The most interesting finding is that religious attitude has a positive effect on cultural activities such as visiting art galleries or museums. We suggest that the religiosity of the Japanese as measured by the importance of their religious attitudes performs the same function as Western measures of traditional religious variables. In the future, by testing the importance of religious attitudes in other countries, including predominately Christian and Muslim nations, and by testing the validity and reliability of religious attitudes, we expect that the effectiveness of this will be clarified. By doing so, we will ultimately be able to regard Japanese religion and religiosity as a non-particular case in international comparative research.
宗教と社会 19(0), 79-95, 2013