宗教性の測定 : 国際比較研究を目指して The Measurement of Religiosity : Future International Comparative Research

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従来の国際比較研究では、「教会出席」や「神との関係」といったキリスト教中心につくられた変数が宗教性を測るものとして用いられてきた。グローバル化する現代において、日本の宗教性を欧米のこれらの変数で正しく測ることは喫緊の課題となっている。本稿では、統計数理研究所の国民性調査の中の「宗教的な心は大切か」という質問文を日本人の宗教性を測るものとし、様々な社会意識や行動との関連を検討した。その結果、欧米の先行研究で検証されていたボランティア行動や利他的行動、投票行動、伝統的意識や社会的責任感に「宗教的な心」が影響を及ぼすことが分かった。日本における「宗教的な心」を用いて測定された宗教性が、欧米で用いられてきた従来の変数で測られるそれと操作的に同じはたらきをする可能性が示唆された。今後、「宗教的な心」が欧米の調査データでも検証されることで、さらにこの項目の有効性が明らかになるだろう。

In traditional cross-national research on religion, religiosity is measured by religious behavior such as "religious affiliation" or "church attendance," as well as religious consciousness such as "relationship to a God," "distance from a God," or "devotion." These variables have been used in Western countries, where many follow Christianity, and applied in cross-national studies. In the modern globalized world, however, we have serious reservations as to whether these variables accurately measure the religiosity of the Japanese, many of whom believe in multitudinous gods (specifically, "8 million gods"). In addition, compared to Western countries, in Japan fewer studies have discussed the relationship between religiosity and social awareness or behavior by employing quantitative methods. This paper employs "procedural equivalence" as a criterion for judgment. This means that certain questions work in the same manner as in Western countries. We explore questions that allow for future international comparative research, and take the "importance of a religious attitude (or a religious mind)" used in Japanese National Character Surveys by the Institute of Statistical Mathematics as a measurement of Japanese religiosity, examining its relationship to social awareness or behavior. We used a sample of 1,455 Japanese men and women aged 25-59; responses were obtained through an interview survey conducted in 2010 by the Stratification and Social Psychology Project (SSP Project). Multiple regression analysis showed that a person's religious attitude has a positive effect on his/her volunteer activities, altruistic activities, voting behavior in elections, traditional consciousness based on the family system, attitudes towards economic inequality, and his/her sense of social responsibility. These results are similar to that of previous studies conducted in Western countries. However, we did not find that a religious attitude affects satisfaction as such, and only affects job satisfaction and income satisfaction. The most interesting finding is that religious attitude has a positive effect on cultural activities such as visiting art galleries or museums. We suggest that the religiosity of the Japanese as measured by the importance of their religious attitudes performs the same function as Western measures of traditional religious variables. In the future, by testing the importance of religious attitudes in other countries, including predominately Christian and Muslim nations, and by testing the validity and reliability of religious attitudes, we expect that the effectiveness of this will be clarified. By doing so, we will ultimately be able to regard Japanese religion and religiosity as a non-particular case in international comparative research.

収録刊行物

  • 宗教と社会

    宗教と社会 19(0), 79-95, 2013

    「宗教と社会」学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110009615911
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11333281
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1342-4726
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    024767143
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z9-B145
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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