公立学校における特殊学級の開設と教育目的・本質論革新の可能性--19世紀末〜1910年代アメリカ都市公立学校  [in Japanese] The establishment of city public special classes and its potentialities of innovation of education in the turn of twentieth century America  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本論文の目的は、20世紀転換期のアメリカ都市公立学校において顕著にみられた学業・行動・健康における逸脱生徒に対して、教育委員会・学校・教員等の学校関係者によってなされた教育的対処における目的と本質を究明することである。19世紀末から着手されたのは混合学年学級であった。この学級は、学業不振児を少人数の個別的指導により、通常学級に復帰させることを目的とし、ある程度の成果はあったものの、逸脱生徒のゴミ捨て場になる傾向があった。混合学年学級改善の結果として、精神薄弱学級、盲学級、肢体不自由児学級、戸外学級等が分化することになるが、混合学年学級の必要性とゴミ捨て場化は解決しないままだった。特殊学級入級のスティグマ化は、学校関係者も認識しており、名称変更等の改善策をとるが、根本的な解決は困難だった。各種の特殊学級の目的は、障害者の一般社会への社会適応が基本であるが、精神薄弱児のように必ずしも関係者の見解が一致しない障害カテゴリーもあった。また、明白な障害はないが、何らかの逸脱があり、適応困難な子どもに関心を示す臨床家もいたが、その場合の目的も、円滑な社会適応の援助であった。

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the intention and essence in the educational plan and practice by the school officials, principals, and teachers, etc. for the remarkably deviated students in respect of academic performance, discipline, and health in city public schools in the turn of twentieth century America. It was ungraded classes that were started at the end of the nineteenth century. The ungraded classes tended to become to be deviating student's dumping ground though these classes aimed to return backward students to the regular classes by individual instruction of the few students, and achieved a measure of success in returning to their former classes. The ungraded classes became to differentiate into the classes of the "feeble-minded," the blind, "crippled," and the open air school, but still the school officials and principals felt the necessity of ungraded classes, and these classes had noticeable tendency toward dumping as before. Adoption of another name in place of "feeble-mindedness" was unsuccessful in solution of the stigma. The purpose of various special classes was basically the social adjustment to "normal" society, and the opinion among parties concerned was not necessarily agreed in the disability category such as "feeble-mindedness". Moreover, a few of clinicians in psychology and education had interest in students without distinct disabilities and difficult social adjustment in order to help to adjust educationally and socially.

Journal

  • Japanese journal of disability sciences

    Japanese journal of disability sciences 34, 1-16, 2010

    障害科学学会

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009624488
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA12215065
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    18815812
  • NDL Article ID
    10730431
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZF1(教育)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-1307
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  NDL-Digital 
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