ナショナリズムはなぜ宗教を必要とするのか : 加藤玄智と梁啓超における社会進化論  [in Japanese] Nationalism, Religion, and Social Darwinism : Nation and Religion in the Works of Kato Genchi and Liang Qichao  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

ナショナリズムはなぜ宗教を必要とするのか。本稿は、その答えの一つを十九世紀後半から二十世紀初頭にかけて世界的に流行した社会進化論の論理に求めるものである。社会進化論の発想からは、社会および国家どうしの関係が社会有機体間の生存競争として捉えられた。その競争を生き残る「強い」国家をつくるためには、国民の強固な統合が不可欠とされ、それを実現し得るものとして宗教が要請された。社会や国家の統合のためには、何らかの価値体系の共有が必要とされ、それを実現することが宗教に求められたのである。本稿はまず、国家神道概念の淵源とされる加藤玄智の宗教論に以上の論理を見出すことができることを示したうえで、同様の論理が清末から民国初期にかけての中国できわめて大きな影響力を持った梁啓超の宗教理解にも見出されることを確認する。

By comparing the ideas of Kato Genchi and Liang Qichao, this paper seeks to reveal the presence of a social Darwinist logic in the modern conceptions of the relationship between nationalism and religion. Based on a social Darwinist perspective, Kato argued for the necessity of a "new religion" to create social cohesion in Japanese society. From the viewpoint of social Darwinism, international relations are a fierce struggle for survival among the various nations, and a society or a nation must be "strong" to win this battle for existence. In order to be strong, people must form a homogenous body politic. Kato understood religions as bearing common values that inte- grate individuals into society. Kato thought it to be essential for the formation of an integrated society that all members of the community share an affiliation to the same religion. This same logic of the relationship between religion and social Darwinism is also found in the thought of Liang Qichao, an eminent scholar, journalist and politician in late imperial and early republican China. Liang's perception of religion underwent various transformations during his lifetime, but Liang persisted in expecting religion or something religious to edify the Chinese people and cause social integration to take place. Like Kato, Liang considered religion to provide the common values that ought to be shared by all members of a nation.

Journal

  • Journal of religious studies

    Journal of religious studies 87(1), 1-25, 2013

    Japanese Association for Religious Studies

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009625104
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00406454
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3293
  • NDL Article ID
    024793023
  • NDL Call No.
    Z9-184
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
Page Top