ディアスポラの信仰者 : 在日アフマディーヤ・ムスリムにみるグローバル状況下のアイデンティティ(<特集>アイデンティティと帰属をめぐるアポリア-理論・継承・歴史) Diaspora Believers : Ahmadiyya Muslims' Identity within Globalization(<Special Theme>Aporias of Identity and Belonging: Theory, Continuity, and History)

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本稿は、宗教を淵源とするディアスポラ・アイデンティティの構築とその次世代再生産にかかる日常実践を、在日アフマディーヤ・ムスリムを事例として描く。アイデンティティの構築性を前提として、それが構築されるということを、行為主体としての個人だけでなく、個人が帰属する共同体、さらには社会的背景をも視野に入れつつ、民族誌的文脈のなかから捉え返そうとする試みであるともいえる。その際には、グローバル化や越境、国家との関係、言葉、ジェンダーに特に注目する。アフマディーヤは19世紀末、英領インドのパンジャーブ州に興ったイスラーム系の新宗教である。インド・パキスタン分離独立の際本部をパキスタンに移し、その後さらにパキスタン政府からの迫害により本部をイギリスに移転、現在に至る。信徒数は公称数千万、現在はパキスタンよりも欧米や西アフリカで勢力を伸ばしている。極端な平和主義と教団の高度な組織化、カリフ制の採用などに教団の特徴がある。本稿ではアフマディーヤ信徒たちを、国家の外縁に確信的に逃れながら、居場所とアイデンティティ保持のために平和的に交渉する多様な主体として位置づける。そして信徒らがどのようにアイデンティティを保持し、その世代間継承につとめているか、国家との関係や距離感、ホスト社会の内部での立ち位置の取り方などを具体的に検討する。それによって、ディアスポラにとってのアイデンティティや「いま、ここ」が持つ多様な帰属のあり方の意味と可能性、そして限界を明らかにしたい。なお本稿は2012年5月から現在に至るまで継続的に主に愛知県で行ったフィールド調査で得たデータに基づく。

<p>This paper aims to elucidate the situation of religious minority diaspora under globalization, based on the following characteristics: nation-state, languages, gender, generations, and belonging. This paper is a case study of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community in Japan, based on cultural anthropological fieldwork from May 2012 to the present. Ahmadiyya, founded in 1889, was one of the new religious movements started in British India, originating with the life and teachings of Mi^^-rza^^- Ghula^^-m Ahmad (1835-1908) . It now has tens of millions adherents (called Ahmadis) worldwide, especially in Europe, North America, and West Africa. Today, about 200 Ahmadis live in Japan, most of whom are from Pakistan, and the rest from India, Indonesia, and other countries. In 1947, when Pakistan broke off from India and both countries gained independence from Britain, the Ahmadis moved from India to Pakistan, and built their base camp in what they named Rabwah. Like other Indian Muslims who migrated from India to Pakistan, the Ahmadis chose Pakistan as the nation-state that they wished to live in. The nation-state 'Muslim Pakistan' was created to develop a sense of unity among Muslims based on their Islamic identity. In that context, the definition of Islam was discussed in Pakistan as such: "Who are we as Muslims, and who are others as heathens?" From the 1950's, Maudu^^-di^^- (1903-1979), the leader of Jamat al-Islam Pakistan, looked upon the Ahmadis as an enemy. After the coup of 1977, they were in league with then-President Zia-ul-Haq, who had emphasized Islam to legitimate his governance because of the lack of popularity, and went on a political campaign against them. As a result, the Ahmadis lost their legal rights as Muslims through a constitutional amendment in 1974. Furthermore, on April 26, 1984, then-President Zia-ul-Haq issued Martial Law Ordinance XX, which amended Pakistan's Penal Code sections 298-B and 298-C, forbidding Ahmadis to do missionary work, uphold the practice of Azan, give sermons, and 'indirectly or directly pose as a Muslim.' The persecution of the Ahmadiyya community has thus been completely legalized, even encouraged, by the Pakistani government. Most Ahmadis who live in Japan emigrated after the 1980's. Ahmadis' distinguishing traits are extreme pacifism, high systematization, and adoption of the caliphate. In this paper, the Ahmadis are described as being prepared to negotiate peacefully with others to keep their identity and to create their own place to live, without infringement from any nation-state and with human rights. We show how they strive to express their religious identity and to maintain that identity in host societies, and how they develop the next generation's religious identity in diaspora. Nation-State: There are only isolated instances of Muslims who accept the separation of religion and politics. However, the Ahmadiyya are noticeable different in this matter. Their founder, Mi^^-rza^^- Ghula^^-m Ahmad (1839-1908) , ordered his followers to 'protect the sanctity of both religion and government by becoming righteous souls as well as loyal citizens,' 'love your country,' and avoid violence. Even though the Pakistani government oppressed them, the Ahmadis never disputed with the government. They escaped from Pakistan and went to other countries where they could live in peace. In their host countries, they respect the host government and try to be loyal citizens as per their founder's teachings. Furthermore, they feel that they now belong to the host country because they live there, and because the host country guarantees them freedom of religion as well as human rights. Languages: As is the case with most Pakistanis, the Ahmadis usually know several different languages. Most of Ahmadis are from Punjab, so their native language is Punjabi. While they can speak</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

収録刊行物

  • 文化人類学

    文化人類学 78(2), 204-224, 2013

    日本文化人類学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110009657425
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11958949
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-0648
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    024917191
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-240
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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