富山県呉西地方における尊敬形「~テヤ」 : 意味・構造の地域差と成立・変化過程  [in Japanese] On the Honorific Form -teya in the Gosei Area of Toyama Prefecture : Regional Difference, Origin, and Change Process  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

富山県呉西地方には動詞尊敬形「〜テヤ」があり,南部の井波では継続相,北部の高岡では非継続相を表す。いわゆる「テ敬語」にあたる形とされてきたものだが,両方言とも基本終止形〜テヤが連体形・疑問形にもなり,このヤをコピュラとはみなせない。井波方言では,否定形が「〜テ(ン)+補助形容詞ナイ」であること,アクセントが「〜テ+補助用言」に準じることから,「〜テ+助動詞ヤ(コピュラとは別語)」と分析でき,高岡方言では,否定形が〜ンデヤとなること,アクセントが中止テ形やタ形に準じることから,テヤを一つの接尾辞だとみなせる。井波より南の五箇山には「〜テ+存在動詞アル」に由来する継続相尊敬形「〜テヤル」があり,井波のテヤはその変化形,高岡のテヤはさらにそれが変化したものと推測される。こうした呉西地方のテヤ形の成立・変化は,上方語や他の西日本方言の「テ敬語」の成立についても再考の余地があることを示唆する。

The form -teya is used as a subject honorific expression in the dialects spoken in the western area of Toyama Prefecture (Gosei area). There are morphological and semantic differences between -teya used in the southern part of Gosei, e.g., Inami area of Nanto City, and that used in downtown of Takaoka City located in the northern part of Gosei. Semantically, -teya (Inami) denotes the continuous aspect, and -teya (Takaoka) does not. Morphologically, -teya (Inami) can be analyzed as a combination of -te and a kind of auxiliary form -ya, based on the facts that it has the negative form te(n)-nai and its accentual pattern resembles -te-V constructions as -te-yaru and -te-aru. -Teya (Takaoka), on the other hand, should be regarded as a suffix as a whole because the corresponding negative form is V-ndeya (V-NEG-teya) and its accentual pattern is the same as the te-form and to-form of the verbs. Although -teya/-tezya used in Kamigata and Chugoku dialects is analyzed as a combination of -te and copula -ya/-zya, this analysis cannot be applied to -teya in Inami and Takaoka. The Gokayama dialect spoken in the far southern area of Gosei has the subject honorific form -te-yaru, which was derived from *-te-aru (aru: existential verb) and denotes continuous aspect. This suggests the historical change *-te-aru > -te-yaru (Gokayama: continuous) > -te-ya (Inami: continuous) > -teya (Takaoka: non-continuous).

Journal

  • Studies in the Japanese Language

    Studies in the Japanese Language 9(3), 33-47, 2013

    The Society for Japanese Linguistics

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009687870
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11998386
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL Article ID
    024767770
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-M894
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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