「古い公共」から「新しい公共」へ : 歴史的視点からみる地域団体(小特集に寄せて,<小特集1>地域における「新しい公共」の担い手-長野県からの報告) From 'Old Public' to 'New Public' Local Organizations from Historical Perspective

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共通論題報告に連動する形で,秋季大会企画委員会は,特別分科会「地域における『新しい公共』の担い手-長野県からの報告」を開催した。長野での動きやその問題点について,長野県県民協働・NPO課,NPO中間支援組織,社会福祉法人,社会的企業という四つの現場の当事者からの報告が行われた。小特集としてその中の3報告を載せるとともに,本稿では当日でた「古い公共」と「新しい公共」の関係性を問う議論について,歴史的考察を行う。ここでは,(1)生活に根ざした近隣団体(「古い公共」)が長く日本の地域社会を支えてきたが,高齢化・過疎化により20世紀末以降衰退期を迎えていること,(2)それが国にも地域の現場にも,危機感と具体的な対応の必要性(「新しい公共」)を呼び起こしたこと,(3)その担い手として期待されるNPO等の組織は,旧来の近隣団体と切れており,地域からの信頼も組織的・財政的存立基盤も十分とは言えないこと,(4)しかし地域の衰退に対応して,旧来の担い手以外も含む新しい組織の促進・定着が求められていること,(5)市民の自主的団体が歴史的に継続して発展したドイツと異なり,そうした経験のない日本にとって「新しい公共」は歴史的挑戦となっていることを論じる。

There are many discussions about what is new for the 'new public', and what is the difference between the 'old public' and the 'new public'. This issue can be examined through historical study on local organizations and their relations with the government. Here the transition of the local organizations is discussed from a historical perspective, including comparison with Germany. This article argues that neighborhood associations based in everyday needs developed in the early 20th century in Japan, and were also authorized by local governments. These various neighborhood associations are what are now referred to as 'old public'. These societies have maintained strong relations in local communities, but nowadays they are getting weaker because their members are aging and younger generations have left local communities. This trend has brought about a crisis consciousness and made necessary a reaction from the government, which has led to the concept of 'new public'. NPOs were expected to bear the burdens of the 'new public', but they were not part of the old neighborhood associations, and thus could not win the trust of local people or attain a stable financial basis. They looked like new, untrustworthy organizations of strangers, with little authority. In spite of these limitations, the new organizations will be more urgently needed as the 'old' organizations will lose their basic functions in the near future. This could be a big historical challenge for Japan, which lacks experience of the development of local voluntary societies, in comparison with, for example, Germany, where voluntary society (Verein) movements from the early 20th century have continued to function actively in contemporary NPO activities.

収録刊行物

  • 社会政策

    社会政策 5(1), 73-82, 2013

    社会政策学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110009688511
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1883-1850
  • データ提供元
    NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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