都市における食糧流通機構の再編 : 戦時下の米穀商企業合同における諸問題(2004年度シンポジウム 戦時日本農業像の再構成) [in Japanese] The Food Distribution Control System in the Urban Area(Symposium-2004- Reexamination of Conventional Views on the Wartime Agriculture in Japan) [in Japanese]
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The reorganization from the private food distribution to the control system under controlled economy accompanied amalgamation of rice stores, and Food Authoritative Corporations (Shokuryo-Eidan) established in 1942. Rice dealers who had forced to give up his management had to move to other jobs or become employed workers of Shokuryo-Eidan. But most of them also invested some money to Shokuryo-Eidan. This article tries to invest how the management and the rationing business of Shokuryo-Eidan developed in the era of the Japanese-Chinese War and the Asian-Pacific War, relying on historical management documents of Hyogo Prefecture Shokuryo-Eidan, being concerned with it's corporate governance. Larger six cities (including Kobe City) started rice ration book systems in April of 1941, and made rationing organization for it. However, in Hyogo Prefecture amalgamation of rice stores delayed, so the prefecture administration had to make leadership for organization of rice stores to prepare for the ration system. After that, the Staple Food Control Act made all prefectures to establish Shokuryo-Eidan in 1942. It promoted to accomplish a food rationing organization even in Hyogo. After establishment, by the leadership of the chairman of the board of directors, Hyogo Prefecture Shokuryo-Eidan executed not only simplification of ration business, but also expanding businesses to related fields and provided welfare facilities for workers. By contrast, profits and dividends for investors were paid little attendance. Although some executive officers stood against such a policy, the chairman carried out his plan getting back up from the prefecture administration. On the other hand, the ordinary workers rapidly got the mentality as employed people. That is to say; Shokuryo-Eidan, which was originated with amalgamation of rice stores, put on a firm footing as the organization based on a separation of ownership and management after a short period. It's center oriented management made it possible to arrange rationing system for the food situation which was getting worse.
- The Journal of Agricultural History
The Journal of Agricultural History 39(0), 34-42, 2005
The Agricultural History Society of Japan