日本近現代における売買春のイメージと実態 : 特に敗戦後の状況下で (特集 性を売る女、買う男)  [in Japanese] Prostitution in Modern Japanese History  [in Japanese]

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日本近現代における売買春について論じた。近世より継続していた売春は、マリア・ルース号事件を契機に、1872年に「芸娼妓解放令」へと結実する。これは、文明開化の一つとして実施されたもので、前近代的な身売りは建前上禁止された。しかし実際は、「自由意志」に基づく稼業として、売春は継続する。こうした仕組みは、欧米の制度を視察して構築されたもので、前近代の売春制度は欧米流の売春統制制度を基にした「公娼制度」へと再編された。つまり、売春に国家の公認が得られたとも言える。政府は私娼の取り締まりは行うものの、売春制度自体を無くそうとはしなかった。敗戦後、日本政府は1945年8月18日に特殊慰安施設協会(RAA)の設置を指示する。これは、占領軍兵士らへの売春を目的とした施設であり、政府はこれに対して資金の貸し付けを行うなど、積極的な関与をみせている。こうした施設の設置を敗戦3日後に指示したことに、政府の売春への意識を見ることができよう。RAAはGHQ兵士の中で性病が蔓延したことで、翌年3月には閉鎖され、そこで働いていた女性たちは放り出され、街娼となっていく。GHQは覚書「日本における公娼制度廃止に関する件」を1946年1月22日に出し、近代の公娼制度は廃止された。しかし日本側の意向もあって、「必要悪」とされて結局は継続し、「赤線」が誕生する。政府は赤線を認める一方、私娼である街娼は取締り、収監・保護して性病治療と矯正に努めた。そうして保護された街娼の生の声が、史料として残されている。それを見ると必ずしも私たちのイメージとは異なる街娼の実態が明らかになる。高学歴者が街娼となったケース、夫や家族に戦争犠牲者を持つケース、一度街娼となってからは生活するために抜け出せないケースなど、その実態は様々である。占領終了後、赤線を廃止しようとする動きは高まるが、法整備はその後なかなか進行しなかった。I have discussed prostitution in the modern period in Japan. In 1872, following the Maria Luz Incident, Japanese bonded prostitution, which had continued from the early modern period onward, was finally addressed by Geishogi kaiho rei(芸娼妓解放令), a law that emancipated prostitutes. This law was enacted as part of Japan's Westernization movement, and it ostensibly prohibited feudalistic bonded labor. In reality, however, prostitution continued as a business based on the "free will" of the women involved. This form of prostitution was constructed as a result of observing the way this industry functioned in Europe. In this way, the feudal system of prostitution was reformed into a "licensed prostitution system," based on western-style systems for regulating prostitution. It can therefore be said that prostitution was officially approved by the state. While the Japanese government did conduct crackdowns on unlicensed prostitution, it made no attempts to eliminate the system itself. After the Second World War, the Japanese government set up the Tokushu Ian Shisetsu Kyokai (literally, the "special comfort facility association"), referred to in English as the Recreation and Amusement Association (RAA). This association provided prostitutes for occupying Allied troops. The government showed active involvement with this association by, for example, providing loans to its facilities. The fact that these facilities were introduced just three days after Japan's surrender gives us an idea of the government's attitude towards prostitution. The RAA was discontinued in March the following year because of the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (GHQ). The women who worked in the facilities were dismissed and ended up working as street prostitutes. On January 22, 1946, the GHQ issued the memorandum "Abolition of Licensed Prostitution in Japan," and the modern-era system of licensed prostitution was abolished as a result .However, the Japanese authorities had their own attitude toward prostitution. It was ultimately allowed to continue and the Akasen districts (literally, "red line" districts-comparable with the term red-light district ) emerged. While the government did sanction these Akasen districts, it also cracked down on unlicensed street prostitution and made efforts to place street prostitutes in protective custody, where they would be treated for sexually transmitted diseases and receive correctional rehabilitation. The direst comments of the street prostitutes who were taken into custody were transcribed and archived. A read-through of these accounts reveals that our image of street prostitution differs from the reality. Many different types of women worked as street prostitution. These included highly educated women, women who had lost their husbands or other family members in the war, and women who, after entering street prostitution, found themselves unable to make a living in any other way. After the occupation of Japan ended, the movement to abolish the Akasen districts grew in strength, but there was little progress in terms of legislation.

I have discussed prostitution in the modern period in Japan. In 1872, following the Maria Luz Incident, Japanese bonded prostitution, which had continued from the early modern period onward, was finally addressed by Geishogi kaiho rei(芸娼妓解放令), a law that emancipated prostitutes. This law was enacted as part of Japan's Westernization movement, and it ostensibly prohibited feudalistic bonded labor. In reality, however, prostitution continued as a business based on the "free will" of the women involved. This form of prostitution was constructed as a result of observing the way this industry functioned in Europe. In this way, the feudal system of prostitution was reformed into a "licensed prostitution system," based on western-style systems for regulating prostitution. It can therefore be said that prostitution was officially approved by the state. While the Japanese government did conduct crackdowns on unlicensed prostitution, it made no attempts to eliminate the system itself. After the Second World War, the Japanese government set up the Tokushu Ian Shisetsu Kyokai (literally, the "special comfort facility association"), referred to in English as the Recreation and Amusement Association (RAA). This association provided prostitutes for occupying Allied troops. The government showed active involvement with this association by, for example, providing loans to its facilities. The fact that these facilities were introduced just three days after Japan's surrender gives us an idea of the government's attitude towards prostitution. The RAA was discontinued in March the following year because of the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (GHQ). The women who worked in the facilities were dismissed and ended up working as street prostitutes. On January 22, 1946, the GHQ issued the memorandum "Abolition of Licensed Prostitution in Japan," and the modern-era system of licensed prostitution was abolished as a result .However, the Japanese authorities had their own attitude toward prostitution. It was ultimately allowed to continue and the Akasen districts (literally, "red line" districts-comparable with the term red-light district ) emerged. While the government did sanction these Akasen districts, it also cracked down on unlicensed street prostitution and made efforts to place street prostitutes in protective custody, where they would be treated for sexually transmitted diseases and receive correctional rehabilitation. The direst comments of the street prostitutes who were taken into custody were transcribed and archived. A read-through of these accounts reveals that our image of street prostitution differs from the reality. Many different types of women worked as street prostitution. These included highly educated women, women who had lost their husbands or other family members in the war, and women who, after entering street prostitution, found themselves unable to make a living in any other way. After the occupation of Japan ended, the movement to abolish the Akasen districts grew in strength, but there was little progress in terms of legislation.

Journal

  • Women's studies forum

    Women's studies forum (28), 27-46, 2014-03

    Kobe College

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009758326
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10066294
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0913-6630
  • NDL Article ID
    025338750
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-2252
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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