地上デジタル放送と受け手の能動性(<特集>デジタル時代の教育メディア理論と実践) Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting and Audience Activity
地上デジタル放送には,日本人にとってのテレビの意味合いを変えるとの期待がかかっている.本稿のねらいは,地上デジタル放送と,受け手の能動的テレビ視聴との関連を検討することである.地上デジタル放送の特性として, 1)高画質・高音質, 2)多チャンネル化, 3)多機能化などがある.先ずはじめに,これら3つの特性が,受け手の能動性のうち,どの側面を促進しうるのかを示す.その上で,マス・コミュニケーション研究に基づいて,実際にその期待通りになるのか,その可能性を検討する.
This paper examines the relationship between digital terrestrial television and audience activity. Digital terrestrial broadcasting alters the very existence of television through the following three characteristics: 1) High definition and high sound quality, 2) multiple channels, and 3) multiple services (electronic program guides, data services, interactive communication, etc.). These three characteristics can be assumed to promote the audiences' affective involvement, selectivity and elaboration. However this perspective is based on technological determinism and is overly "rose-colored". Previous mass communication research does not support these optimistic anticipations. High definition and high sound quality does not automatically lead to affective involvement. An increase in channel selection does not lead to an increase in programming selection. Even if multiple services facilitate a viable learning environment, unless efforts towards higher concentration and active utilization of these multiple services are made, learning by the audience will not occur. Past studies on digital satellite television audiences have found that similar new services are often not fully utilized by the users. Consequently, the multiple services of digital terrestrial television will most probably not be fully used. In this way, the permeation of digital terrestrial television will not automatically mean the promotion of audience activity. This paper concludes that further research on the factors that facilitate audience activity by digital terrestrial television viewing is necessary.
教育メディア研究 10(2), 7-13, 2004