近世後期の活用研究とテニヲハ論における<命令形>  [in Japanese] A History of the Study of the Japanese Imperative in the Edo Period  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

明治三十年代頃まで、日本語の文法研究では<命令形>を含めた六活用形を立てる立場は少数であった。本稿では、本居宣長、富士谷成章、本居春庭、鈴木朖、東条義門、富樫広蔭、鈴木重胤など、明治期の日本語の活用研究に影響を与えた近世後期テニヲハ論と活用研究における<命令形>に関する言説を辿り、なぜ活用表に加えられなかったのか、その背景を考察した。<命令形>の語形には、大別すれば(1)エ段音語尾をとるものと(2)語尾「よ」を伴う形式の二種類ある。宣長・成章頃までは両者を<テニヲハ>として論じることもあったが、春庭の活用研究によって、(1)は用言、(2)の語尾「よ」は切り離して<テニヲハ>に位置づけられた。このため、<命令形>は用言と<テニヲハ>両方の領域に跨ってしまい、活用表に入れることが出来ず、用言の一用法として活用表の外に記述され続ける。特に「国学風文典」において<命令形>の定着が遅れたのは、このような背景があったためと考えられる。

In the Japanese school grammar, there are six forms of conjugation patterns. However, the imperative form was rarely included in them until about 1900. This paper considers how the imperative form was dealt with by authors such as MOTOORI Norinaga (本居宣長), FUJITANI Nariakira (富士谷成章), MOTOORI Haruniwa (本居春庭), SUZUKI Akira (鈴木朖), TOJO Gimon (東条義門), TOGASHI Hirokage (富樫広蔭), SUZUKI Shigetane (鈴木重胤), and others in reference grammars of the late Edo period (18th through the early 19th centuries). In classical Japanese, there are two patterns of the imperative form: one ends with the vowel "e", and the other with "-yo". While Norinaga and Nariakira sometimes consider them as teniwoha (particles, auxiliary verbs, suffixes, and so on), Haruniwa treats the former in the conjugation system and "-yo" as teniwoha. As a result, the treatment of the imperative form was ranged between the conjugation system and teniwoha. Therefore, the imperative form was not included in grammatical tables for conjugation, and it was treated as a separate entity. This background was the reason why it took so long to settle the position of the imperative form in conjugation tables.

Journal

  • Studies in the Japanese Language

    Studies in the Japanese Language 9(4), 78-63, 2013

    The Society for Japanese Linguistics

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009810399
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11998386
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL Article ID
    024926574
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-M894
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
Page Top