「共存」再考――東アフリカ2地域社会における人間-野生動物関係の分析から――  [in Japanese] Rethinking "Coexistence": The Analysis of Human-Wildlife Relations in Two Local Societies in East Africa  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>環境社会学における人間-野生動物関係に関する重要な議論として,野生動物と「近い」関係をもつ住民は被害を許容し,「害獣」との「共存への意志」を抱きうるという主張がある。ただし,その意義が地球上の人間-野生動物関係の歴史的・地域的な多様性を視野に入れて検討されてはこなかった。本稿の課題は,先行研究に見られる「距離の近さ-被害の許容-共存への意志」という連続性がつねに成立するのかどうかを,その理由も含めて東アフリカの2地域社会を事例に検討することである。本稿は地域社会・野生動物によって人間-野生動物関係は多様であり前述の連なりがつねに成立するとは限らない点を示すとともに,その多様な連続性を理解するうえでは広義の「社会的」関係の影響下で動的に(再)生産される「関係の〈意味〉」が重要であること,そして,時代や種類によって異なりうる野生動物との「かかわり」のすべてが住民によってつねに支持されるとは限らない以上は,「かかわり」をアプリオリに肯定したり,特定の野生動物から自然へと「共存」の議論を安易に接続したりすることは問題であることを指摘する。</p>

<p>One of the most influential arguments in the field of Environmental Sociology with regard to human-wildlife relations is that people living close to wildlife demonstrate a degree of tolerance toward damage caused by wild animals resulting in a "will to coexist" with those animals. However, the universality of this argument has not yet been examined historically and in consideration of the local variety of human-wildlife relations. Focusing on the analysis of two local societies in east Africa, this paper discusses the history and interaction of the three factors of "farness/nearness of human-wildlife relations―tolerance/intolerance of damage caused by wildlife―existence/nonexistence of the will of people to coexist with wildlife". It is demonstrated that "near relations" are no guarantee of "tolerance toward damage" and the "will to coexist", and that "meanings of relations" acknowledged in a local society are important in understanding the different ways in which these features interact. On one hand, the "meanings of relations" are shared and reproduced through daily practices in local societies, and on the other hand, they can easily be changed by the influence of the outside world. As "relations" to wildlife vary according to time and species and, not all "relations" are approved of by local people, the complacent way of thinking that "near relations" always lead to the "(will to) coexistence" and the easy extension of the discussion of coexistence with wildlife to that of with nature must be questioned.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Environmental Sociology

    Journal of Environmental Sociology 19(0), 127-142, 2013

    Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009829295
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10498448
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • NDL Article ID
    024976583
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B659
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE  NDL-Digital 
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