妊娠女性の社会経済的地位と抑うつおよび人生満足度との関係 Depression and life satisfaction in pregnant women : Associations with socio-economic status
本研究は社会経済的地位と,妊娠週数33〜37週にある女性の抑うつあるいは人生満足度との関連について明らかにすることを目的とした。地域の中核病院である一施設において, 225名の妊婦に対し,抑うつと人生満足度に関する自記式質問票を配布した。また,産褥2〜4日に,妊娠期の調査に回答した女性のうちの192名に面接を行い,社会経済的地位について調査した。最終分析数は153件であった。その結果,研究対象者の年齢は20歳代が多く,学歴は夫婦とも高くなく,拡大家族が多かった。これらは調査施設周辺の地域の特徴を反映したものと思われる。さらに,女性を人生満足度得点と社会経済的地位で比較を行ったところ,人生満足度得点はパートナーの学歴と関連があった。妊娠中の抑うつ感情では,抑うつ傾向のある女性は抑うつ傾向のない女性より経済的困難感を自覚し,パートナーの学歴と年収が低かった。一方,女性が経済的困難感を自覚するとき,妊娠中に抑うつである確率は4.611倍(p=0.015, [1.341, 15.850]),パートナーの雇用形態が正規雇用のときは,抑うつである確立は0.099倍(p=0.001, [0.016, 0.631])となることが示された。よって,医療者が周産期にある女性の社会経済的地位と健康との関係に注目する意義は大きいと考える。
The aim of this study was to identify the association between socio-economic status and depression or life satisfaction among women in the 33rd to 37th week of pregnancy. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 225 pregnant women attending "A" hospital, a hub facility in the region, to investigate the women's depressive states and levels of life satisfaction. Of the women who responded to the survey, 192 were interviewed by questionnaire, 2 to 4 days after delivery to identify their socio-economic status. A total of 153 women were studied. Many of the women were in their 20s, and their levels of education (as well as their partners') were not high. Most of them lived in extended families, which seemed to reflect the regional features of the study site and surrounding areas. The women were divided into two groups according to their life satisfaction score, and the difference in the socio-economic status of the two groups was compared. Depressive feelings during pregnancy were associated with a sense of economic hardship and with the employment status and educational background of the women's partners. In addition, if the women were conscious of economic difficulties, the odds ratio for their suffering depression during pregnancy was 4.611 times of depression (p=0.015, [1.341, 15.850]). If their partners had full-time employment status, their depression during pregnancy was 0.099 times of depression (p=0.001, [0.016, 0.631]). These findings indicate that it is extremely important for medical staff to focus on the socio-economic status of pregnant women and their partners.
母性衛生 55(2), 387-395, 2014-07