1930年代における学校報徳社・児童常会の端緒 : 富山県下指定教化村の報徳教育に着目して [in Japanese] The Beginnings of the Educational Practice of "Gakkō Hōtokusha" and "Jido Jōkai" in the 1930's : "Hōtoku Kyoiku" in Designated Villages of Toyama Prefecture [in Japanese]
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This paper explores the historical significance of education during the Showa period through the study of the theory and practice behind the student associations "Gakko Hotokusha" (School Moral Requital Society) and "Jido Jokai" (Children's Diet) which began in Toyama Prefecture in the 1930s. Teachers led the rapid development of the "Shinko Hotoku Undo" (New Moral Requital Movement) in Toyama Prefecture. Takashima Shuichi, the principal of Takanosu Elementary School, began to hold seminars and "hotoku" events in 1933. The following year, he established "Gakko Hotokusha" and "Jido Jokai." Takashima combined "Hotoku Shiho" (the way of moral requital) with the educational system to create "Gakko Shiho" (the way of School Moral Requital). Since Helen Parkhurst's visit in 1924, Toyama teachers had studied the new education system extensively. Consequently, educational philosophy focused on respecting individuality had developed under the economic crisis of the Early Showa period. Although "Gakko Shiho" theory was one of many movements to appear at this time, it was conspicuous in the designated villages of Toyama prefecture. On the other hand, "Jido Jokai" spread throughout designated villages, putting significant pressure on Toyama prefecture. However, after 1935, a variety of educational practices were encouraged in addition to "Hotoku Kyoiku." Takanosu Elementary School also emphasized the Imperial Rescript on Education and the General Mobilization System. Meanwhile, in Kitahannya Village where there was opposition from Buddhist temples and shrines, a more accommodating adaptation of "Gakko Hotokusha" and "Jido Jokai" was created after 1935. Matsuda Tomio, the principal of Kitahannya Elementary School, regarded the practice from the perspective of the "edification" of Imperial Japan. This version of "Gakko Hotokusha" received much praise from the entire country. In the 1930s, two significant movements formed in Toyama Prefecture, "Gakko Shiho," based on the pedagogical study created by Takashima, and Matsuda's adaptation, thus allowing "Gakko Hotokusha" and "Jido Jokai" to continue into the 1940s.
- STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION
STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION 57(0), 45-57, 2014
The Japan Society for Historical Studies of Education