カントにおける宗教と幸福(<特集>しあわせと宗教)  [in Japanese] Kant on Religion and Happiness(<Special Issue>Religion and Happiness)  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

カントによれば、宗教は人間に幸福への希望をゆるすことに本質がある。しかし、幸福に関する彼の説明は多様で、宗教が希望することをゆるす幸福を彼がいかなるものと考えていたか、必ずしも明確でない。まず彼は倫理学を基礎づける議論において、幸福を「あらゆる傾向性の満足」「自分の存在や状態への完全な充足」と規定し、それが道徳原理を提供しえない旨を論じ、人間が道徳法則遵守の意識に基づいて経験する「自己充足」も「幸福の類似物」でしかなく、これを幸福と混同しないよう警告している。つまり幸福と宗教から道徳を純化しようと努めている。ところが、希望される幸福を論じる段になると、それは「最高善」の第二要素として扱われ、道徳との密接な関係が取り戻される。ここでの幸福も相変わらず「自分の存在や状態への完全な充足」ではあるが、前述の「自己充足」を基に成立するものであり、「傾向性の満足」は捨象される(来世で希望される「浄福」の場合)か、制限される(現世の「倫理的公共体」において希望される「普遍的幸福」の場合)。また興味深いことに、この「最高善」の促進が人類の義務であるにもかかわらず、同時にその実現へ向かう同じプロセスに神の助力が希望されるともカントは考えている。

According to Kant, religion consists in hope for happiness. However, his explanations of happiness are various, and it is not necessarily clear what kind of happiness he thinks is the happiness for which religion allows one to hope. In his arguments laying the foundation for ethics Kant defines happiness as "satisfaction of all inclinations" and "complete satisfaction with one's existence/condition." He argues that it can never provide the moral principle, and warns that one should not confuse it with "self-contentment" as a mere "analogue of happiness," which occurs based on consciousness of observing moral laws. In brief, he tries to purify morality from religion and happiness. On the other hand, when he discusses the happiness hoped for as the second element of the "highest good," its close connections with morality are redeemed. In this context, also, happiness is "complete satisfaction with one's existence/condition," but this can only be realized based on the above-mentioned "self-contentment," and the "satisfaction of inclinations" cannot but be abstracted (in the case of "beatitude" hoped for after death in a future world) or limited (in the case of "general happiness" to be realized in an "ethical community" which should be established in this world). Interestingly, Kant seems to argue that promotion of the "highest good" is obliged to human beings, but at the same time one may hope for the help of God in the same process to its realization.

Journal

  • Journal of religious studies

    Journal of religious studies 88(2), 423-446, 2014

    Japanese Association for Religious Studies

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009845141
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00406454
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3293
  • NDL Article ID
    025816012
  • NDL Call No.
    Z9-184
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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