外出頻度の少ない山間地域在宅高齢者支援の検討  [in Japanese] A Study of Support Systems for Elderly People Who Live in Mountainous Areas, Are Housebound and Who Have Limited Opportunity for Out-of-House Travel  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

目的:山間地域の外出頻度の少ない在宅高齢者の特性を明らかにし,その支援の方向性を検討した.方法:A町2地区の65歳以上の全在宅高齢者721名に本人または家族による自記式アンケート調査を実施した.有効回答数は541人であった.外出群と非外出群に分類し身体的,社会的,心理的調査項目との関連を検討した.χ<sup>2</sup>検定,t検定を行った.またこの2群を従属変数として,年齢,性,外出時介助の有無を独立変数とした多重ロジスティック回帰分析を行った.結果:非外出群の特徴は,家庭内での身の回りについては介助なしに過ごせるが,徒歩で少し遠くに外出することは介助が必要であった.外出等の移動時に,身体的な負担感を自覚できる者(痛み,負担感,見えにくさ等)であった.生活に対する満足感や幸福感は,外出群と比較すると低いものの比較的充足していた.身近な他者との関わりや楽しみをもち,自分の役割があると感じていた.しかし社会との関わりや日常生活の主体性については低下していた.まとめ:山間部では身辺の自立が不可能になると,町に住む子どもの家で同居するか施設に入るため,在宅高齢者は身辺自立が何とか可能な,しかし外出は介助が必要な虚弱高齢者が多いことが明らかになった.閉じこもりを予防するためには,仲間との交流の機会だけではなく,移動手段の確保が必要である.また通常(健康時)の社会生活ができる環境を整えることも重要であり,今後生活空間(場)を広げる外出機会とその手段を確保・支援するための施策が必要である

Descriptions of the research : People who live in mountainous areas tend to be weak and elderly. The purpose of this research is to clarify the characteristics of elderly people, living in mountainous areas, who are housebound and who have little opportunity to venture out of their homes. The study examines the support systems available for these people. As regards methodology, the research utilised a questionnaire and data analysis. The questionnaire was sent to 721 elderly people, aged 65 and over. Effective replies were received from 541 respondents. These 541 persons were classified under the headings Totally Housebound and Having Access to Out-of House Experiences. Consideration then was given to physical, social and mental comparisons between these subgroups. Results: It proved to be characteristic of the totally housebound respondents that those who were able to live independently within the confines of their homes also needed the care of an assistant when going out on foot. The consequent embarrassment which these people felt when going outside their homes, and their sense of being a social burden, was experienced almost as a physical pain, a pain of which they needed to be relieved. Although the totally housebound group expressed themselves as happy and satisfied with their lot in life, their feelings of satisfaction rated at a lower level than the feelings of the non-housebound group. The totally housebound group were able to enjoy closing relationship with a significant person, this relationship giving pleasure and a sense of fulfilment and meaning in life. However, for the housebound group overall, there was a decline in their relational patterns with wider society and in their autonomy with respect to day-today social norms. Conclusions : Elderly people in mountainous areas might be obliged to move to cities, to live with children, or to live in nursing-homes, when they have reached the point where they no longer can look after themselves. Many of those still living in mountainous areas are weak and elderly people. They are able to look after themselves but need assistance when leaving their homes. An exchange with a reliable friend might afford a way of saving the elderly from becoming totally housebound. To make this approach effective, not only must the opportunities be created. But suitable arrangements must also be work through, and put in place. Overall, the aim, in relation to the housebound elderly, must be to prepare an environment affording these people a quality of life as close as possible to that which they enjoyed when they were healthy. A policy, therefore, should be generated and implemented which creates out-of-house experiences for the totally housebound elderly, thus extending their lives and enhancing their quality of life.

Journal

  • Journal of Japan Academy of Community Health Nursing

    Journal of Japan Academy of Community Health Nursing 7(1), 62-67, 2004

    Japan Academy of Community Health Nursing

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009862779
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    1346-9657
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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