インドネシア・スンバ島における世帯と家計の人類学的研究 [in Japanese] An Anthropological Study of Households and their Economics on the Island of Sumba, Indonesia [in Japanese]
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The aim of this paper is to report some results of the research project titled "An Anthropological Study of Kinship and Family in Changing Rural Societies in Indonesia," which was funded by the Research Institute of St. Andrew's University. The field work was carried out from November to December 2010 in two villages, Kadahang and Wunga, of the Regency of East Sumba, in the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur, in order to acquire sociocultural and economic data of one hundred households. The data were analyzed to elucidate the household economics of the Sumbanese villagers, a topic seldom studied by previous anthropologists, and to understand how the villagers employ survival strategies to overcome some critical problems occurring among the changing local societies. The results of the research on household economics show that the monthly average of the total expenditure per household was over IDR 1,100,000 (at the time about JPY 11,000), which is more than was assumed beforehand since East Sumba is known to have much poverty. It should be considered how the households get money to pay for educational expenses for their children and everyday commodities excluding agricultural products. Although household heads identify themselves as "farmers" (tani in Indonesian), income from fishing comprises a significant part of their total cash income. Also, livestock such as horses and pigs can be sold to cover the large costs of higher education or hospital treatment. This paper focuses on one household as a case study to explore how its head is able to cover large expenditures for the son's entering university located outside the island of Sumba and the two daughters' attending high schools in the town of Waingapu. Nowadays, most parents hope their children attain higher education so that they can work as government officials or teachers. To cover the high costs of education, the household head sold his livestock and held a ritual called "asking for help" (karai pandulangu) to collect money from friends as well as his neighbors and relatives. Because the children lodge with the father's acquaintances without charge, he can save on the educational costs. He fully utilizes his own resources including his social networks so that his children can acquire a higher educational background. This is an example of the survival strategies that villagers often employ for the welfare of the households.
- ST.ANDREW,S UNIVERSITY BULLETIN OF THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
ST.ANDREW,S UNIVERSITY BULLETIN OF THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 38(1), 27-48, 2012-08
St. Andrew's University