理科教育における生命観の男女差と地域差に関する研究 [in Japanese] Study on the Sex Differences and Regional Differences of the Idea of Life in Science Education [in Japanese]
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本研究は,男女や地域による生命観の違いを明らかにすることを目的とする。筆者らが開発及び改良した生命観測定尺度を用いて,小学校6年生,中学校2年生を対象に,生命観を構成する生物概念及び生命概念の各下位概念に含まれる項目平均値を下位尺度得点として求めた。その結果,次のことが明らかとなった。1 生命観には男女間で,両学年の「アニミズム」「命」の数値は女子の方が男子に比べて有意に高く,都市部に住む中学校2年生並びに農村部に住む両学年で女子の方が男子に比べて「命」の数値は有意に高くなるという差がみられた。また,中学校2年生では,女子の方が男子に比べて有意に高い得点を示す下位概念の数が多くなるという差がみられた。2 生命観には地域間で,都市部の方が農村部に比べて有意に高い得点を示した下位概念を含む上位概念は,小学校6年生では生命概念であり,中学校2年生では生物概念であるという差が見られた。両学年の男子では,都市部の方が農村部に比べて「機械論」の数値が有意に高いという差がみられ,地域を取り巻く環境の差が要因になっていると考えられる。
The purpose of this research was to clarify the differences in the idea of life between males and females and among communities. Targeting the sixth-grade elementary school students and the second-grade lower secondary school students, the average values of items included in each basic component of the biological concepts and life concepts constituting the idea of life were obtained as subscale scores by a scale measuring the idea of life developed by Yamaya et al. As a result, the following were revealed: 1 As for the comparison of the idea of life between male students and female students in both academic years above, the values of "Animism" and "Life" of female students were significantly higher than those of male students, and the second-grade lower secondary school female students living in urban areas and female students of both academic years living in rural areas scored significantly higher in "life" than male students did. Furthermore, female students of the second-grade lower secondary school scored significantly high in a larger number of basic concepts than male students of the same academic year did. 2 As for the comparison of the idea of life among communities, students in urban areas scored significantly higher in the fundamental concepts of life. The concepts that the sixth-grade elementary school students scored significantly higher on were the life concepts, and that of the second-grade lower secondary school students were the biological concepts. Male students of both academic years in urban areas scored significantly higher in "Mechanism" than those in rural areas. This result is considered to be caused by the environmental differences between urban areas and rural areas.
日本理科教育学会理科教育学研究 53(2), 359-368, 2012-11
Society of Japan Science Teaching