足尾銅山が引き起こした鉱害における環境およびヒトへの影響 Pollution caused by Ashio Copper Mine and its effects on environment and human health

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著者

    • 大嶋 宏誌 OSIMA Hiroshi
    • 国際医療福祉大学 薬学部 2011年度卒業 Graduated from School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare in 2011

抄録

足尾銅山における「足尾鉱毒事件」は日本最初の公害であり,採掘技術の近代化および大規模化により鉱害は拡大した.鉱害は,製錬所から出る亜硫酸ガス等の有害物質や過剰な伐採による森林の荒廃および農作物の枯死,選鉱排水や鉱石堆積場から漏れ出る銅等の重金属を含んだ水による魚類の斃死および農作物被害であった.また,衛生環境の悪化が原因と思われる出生率の低下や死亡率および死産率の増加が起こっていた.鉱害対策は明治期から行われていたが,煙害は自熔炉精錬法導入まで解決せず,鉱毒水問題は精錬事業停止まで解決しなかった.現在,国や栃木県,NPO,市民ボランティア等が協力して植林活動を行っている.しかしながら,膨大な土地改良事業費用や治山活動費用を費やしても,かつての姿は取り戻せていない.近年は我が国で大規模な公害が発生する状況にはないが,東日本大震災による福島第一原子力発電所の事故のように,通常とは異なる条件により発生する可能性は否定できない.したがって,過去の公害による知識を利用して十分な予防措置をとることが重要である.

The Ashio Copper Mine Mineral Pollution Incident was the first pollution-related incident to be recorded in Japan, and the pollution caused by mining expanded along with the modernization and expansion of mining technology. The pollution caused the devastation of forests, withering of crops, dying of fish, and crop damage. Devastation of forests and withering of crops were due to excessive deforestation and harmful substances, such as sulfurous acid gas, from the refinery. Dying of fish and crop damage were caused by the leaking of pit wastewater and water containing heavy metals, such as copper, from ore deposit sites. In addition, the decline in the birth rate and increase in the death and stillbirth rates at that time may have been due to the worsening of the health-related environment. Although anti-pollution measures had been carried out from the Meiji era, smoke damage was not resolved until the introduction of the flash smelting method, and the issue of water contamination by minerals was not resolved until the refinement business was suspended. The national and Tochigi prefectural government, NPOs, and citizen volunteers are currently working together on tree planting. However, even with enormous budgets spent on agricultural land improvement projects and forest conservation activities, the environment has not regained its previous appearance. In recent years, while pollution on a massive scale rarely occurs in Japan, we cannot rule out the possibility of it occurring in the case of abnormal conditions, such as the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Therefore, it is important to use the knowledge gained through past pollution-related incidents in order to take sufficient measures.

収録刊行物

  • 国際医療福祉大学学会誌

    国際医療福祉大学学会誌 20(2), 59-69, 2015-08-25

    国際医療福祉大学

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110009939173
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA12537130
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    Journal Article
  • 雑誌種別
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    21863652
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    026823551
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z19-B929
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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